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初中英语语法讲解-15个专题汇总(习题和答案)

发布时间:2021-04-12 20:03:58 浏览数:

目录 专题一 名词 1 专题二 数词、冠词 7 专题三 介词、连词 14 专题四 代词 21 专题五 形容词、副 词 30 专题六 动词的分类 39 专题七 情态动词、系动词 46 专题八 动词时态 53 专题九 被动语态 59 专题十 非谓语动词 66 专题十一 简单句、并列句 76 专题十二 祈使句、感叹句 84 专题一三 宾语从句 90 专题一四 定语从句 98 专题一五 状语从句 105 专题一 名词 1. 名词的数 1. 概述: 名词按其表示的事物的性质分为可数名词和不可数名词。

2. 可数名词及其单复数:可数名词有单复数变化,其前通常用不定冠词和数词来修饰,还可用many, few, a few, some, any, plenty of, lots of, a number of 等修饰。构成名词复数形式的方法分为规则法和不规则法两种。

1) 复数的规则构成法:绝大多数英语中的名词复数都是在单数名词后加上词尾-s或-es构成的。具体规则如下图:
规则 例词 一般情况下加-s apple-apples, ruler-rulers 以s, x, ch,sh,结尾的加-es bus-buses, box-boxes, watch-watches, brush-brushes 以辅音字母加y结尾的,把y变成i再加-es city-cities, county-countries 以f或fe结尾的,把f或fe变成v,再加-es knife-knives, leaf-leaves 以o结尾的,有的词尾加-es,有的加-s 在初中英语范围内加-es的主要有以下4个:tomato-tomatoes,potato-potatoes Hero-heroes, Negro-Negroes 2) 复数的不规则构成法:
a.单复同形的:Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese, deer-deer, sheep-sheep, fish-fish(表示鱼的数量) b. 熟记下列词的复数变化:man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, mouse-mice, child-children c. 以man, woman做定语构成的复合名词,变复数时要全变:a man teacher-two men teachers; 其他情况一般只变主体名词而作定语的名词不变:a girl student-two girl students 3. 不可数名词:不可数名词没有单复数。如:water, meat, air等。在表示数量时,通常用以下方法。

1)用some, much, a little, little, a lot of, lots of, plenty of 等表示多少。

There is little milk at home. The old man has lots of money. 2) 若要表示不可数名词的数量,应用“数词+量词+of+名词”这种形式,若数字超过一,量词应用复数形式。如:a glass of water-two glasses of water, a piece of bread-two pieces of bread 2. 专有名词:专有名词是表示特定的人,事物, 地点等,如:Tom, China, the United Kingdom. 专有名词的第一个字母一般大写,大部分专有名词前一般不用冠词。

3. 名词的所有格:
1. 概述:名词的所有格在句中是表示所有关系,作定语。

2. 名词所有格的构成:名词所有格包括 –s所有格和of所有格两种形式。无生命的名词的所有格通常用of短语来表示所有关系。如:the name of the school, the window of the house等。–s所有格主要用于有生命的东西和表示时间,距离,国家等的名词后。构成方法如下:
1) 一般直接在名词后加’s. 如:Jim’s book 2) 复数名词的所有格,若以s/es结尾只加撇号,不以s/es结尾仍加’s。如:
Children’s Day, the teachers’ office. 3)“ and”连接的并列名词的所有格,表示两人“共有”只在后一个名词尾加’s; 表示“各自拥有”,两个名词尾都要加’s. 如:Jim and Lucy’s book(共有); Jane’s and Tom’s books(不共有) 4)表示店铺或某人的家等处所时,常在名词的所有格后省去shop, house, home等。如:the barber’s, at my uncle’s 5) 表示时间,距离,国家,城市的无生命名词,可以在词尾加’s或’表示所有格,如:today’s newspaper, five minutes’ walk. 3. 双重所有格 1)名词双重所有格的含义:of+名词所有格称为双重所有格,这种结构中,of前面是一部分,of后面是一个整体。

例如:Mr Wang is a friend of my father's. (=Mr Wang is one of my father's friends.) 王先生 是我父亲的一个朋友. 2)名词双重所有格的构成方法:
     a. of前面的名词前面通常有一个含泛指意义的限定词,如a, any, some, no, few, several以及two, three等。例如:
Have you read any stories of Lei Feng's? 你看过雷锋的故事吗? They gave me some books of theirs. 他们把他们的一些书给了我。

Three classmates of my sister's have found good jobs. 我姐姐的三个同学已经找到了好工作。

b. 有时of前面的名词前面可以用指示代词this, that表示某种感情色彩。例如:
That answer of Jim's was right. 吉姆的那个回答是对的。

Something is wrong with this eye of mine. 我的这只眼睛出了毛病。

c. of后面带有's的名词或名词性物主代词通常是特指的人。例如:
That's a book of Lu Xun's. 这是鲁迅的一本书。

This is a child of theirs. 那是他们的一个孩子。

3)名词的双重所有格与“of + 名词”结构之间的区别:
a.. 句子所表达的侧重点不同。试比较:
He is a friend of my father's. (着重说明“父亲”的朋友不止一个) He is a friend of my father. (着重说明“他”是父亲的一个朋友) b. of前面是picture等词时,含义不同。试比较:
This is a picture of my teacher's. 这是我老师收藏的一张照片。

This is a picture of my teacher. 这是我老师的一张照片。

实战演练(2×50) 1. June 1st is ____ Day all over the world. A. Child’s B. Children’s C. Childrens’ 2. September 10th is ___ Day in China. A. Teacher’s B. Teachers’ C. Teacher 3. This is _______ news. A. such a good B. a very good C. such good 4.—What ______ it is! —Let’s go out to have a picnic. A. a fine weather B. fine day C. a fine day 5. Tom and I go to school _____ every day. A. on feet B. on foot C. by foot 6. –Are those _____? -No, they aren’t. They’re _____. A. sheep; cows B. sheep; cow C. sheeps; cow 7. A group of ____ are talking with two ___ over there. A. Frenchmen; Germans B. Frenchmen; Germen C. German; Frenchmen 8. That doctor drank two _____. A. glass of water B. glasses of waters C. cups of tea 9. Mrs. Smith is an old friend of _______. A. Bob mother B. Bob’s mother’s C. mother of Bob 10. The tall man with a big nose is _______ classmate. A. Tom and Carl B. Tom’s and Carl’s C. Tom and Carl’s 11.In ____ time, there will be more tall buildings in our city. A. few year B. a few years’ C. a few year’s 12. How many ___ do you want every month? A. milk B. water C. apples 13. –Whose is this new bicycle? -It’s _____. A. Sue and Jim’s B . Sue and Jim C. Sue’s and Jim’s 14. –Would you like _____tea? -No, thanks. I’ve drunk two __. A. any; bottles of orange B. a little; bottle of oranges C. some; bottles of orange 15. –How many _____ do you want? -Two, please. A. kilos of egg B. kilo of eggs C. kilos of eggs 16. The bus stop is two _____ from our house. A. hour’s drive B. hours’ drive C. hour-drive 17. –Where are you going, Amy?-_______. A. To my uncle B. To my uncle’s C. At my uncle 18. Have you read _____? A. a newspaper of today’s B. today newspaper C. today's newspaper 19. Lucy put a lot of ____ in ____ of tea. A. sugar; the two cup B. sugars; the two cups C. sugar; the two cups 20. Tomatoes, broccoli, and ____ are vegetables. A. bananas B. potatoes C. noodles 21. –Help yourself to some _________. -Thank you. I really like them. A. fish B. orange C. cakes 22. The little baby has two _______ already. A. tooth B. a tooth C. teeth 23. We all had ______ last month. Did you travel to anywhere? A. three days’ holiday B. three day’s holiday C. three-days holiday 24. When autumn comes, ______ of most trees turn yellow and then fall down. A. leaf B. leave C. leaves 25. Tomorrow I'm going to my________. It's a _________. A aunt...five minutes' walk        B aunt's...five minute's walk C aunt's...five minutes' walk 26. A computer is one of the greatest ________in this century. A inventors      B inventions      C invitations      27. We haven't ________ homework to do today. A many           B some           C much 28. Three hours________enough for a__________boy to read books. A is...ten-year-old             B are...ten-year-old C is...ten-years-old                  29. _________that pair of new_________nice? A Is...shoe                    B Are...shoes C Is...shoes                             30.Mary, I've bought many_______. Now let's make the birthday cake. A fresh eggs                 B chocolate milk C food                            31. The two ________are my________. A woman doctors... friends     B women doctors... friends C women doctors... friend 32. These are________houses. A Lee and my uncle                   B the Lee's and my uncle's C theLees' and my uncle           33. We are__________.They are_________. A Chinese...Germen                      B Chinese...German C Chinese...Germans 34. There ______ a pencil and two books on the desk.   A. has         B. is      C.are 35. A number of students ______ for the school bus now.  A. is waiting  B. are waiting  C. waits  36. The number of students in the class ______ large.  A. are   B. has  C.is  37. A _____ is used for keeping warm.   A. stamp B. scarf C. key 38. There is no _______ in the bus so we have to wait for another bus.   A. room B. a room C. rooms 39. ---This is a photo of _________ when they were young. ---OK, how happy they both looked! A. my father and mother B. my mother and father's C. my mother's and father's 40. The new student is in __________ , Grade Two. A. Class Third B. Third Class C. Class Three 41. --- What would you like to drink, girls? --- _________, please. A.Two cup of coffee B. Two cups of coffee C. Two coffee 42 During Christmas, people get together and sing Christmas songs for ______ A. fun B. wishes C. interest 43. They are those _________ bags. Please put them on the bus. A. visitor B. visitor's C. visitors' 44.--- How many students are there in your school? --- There are two ___________. A. hundreds B. hundred C. hundreds of 45. ---What do you think of the _______ the Moonlight Sonata by Beethoven? -- It sounds really wonderful. A. subject B. music C. book 46. There is not enough _________ in the corner for the TV. A. place B. room C. field 47. If you don't take more ________, you'll get fat. A. medicine B. lessons C. exercise 48. My school is about twenty ________ walk from here. A. minute B. minutes' C. minutes 49. Mum, I have _______ to tell you! A. a good news B. some good news C. many good news 50. Maths ________ not easy to learn. A. are B. is C. am 参考答案:
1-5:BBCCB; 6-10:AACBC; 11-15: BCACC; 16-20:BBCCB; 21-25:CCACC;
26-30:BCACA 31-35:CBCBB;
36-40:CBAAC;
41-45:BBCBB;
46-50:BCBBB 专题二 数词、冠词 一.数词 1.数词概述:表示数目多少或顺序先后的词叫做数词。其用法相当于名词或者形容词。

2.数词的种类:可以分为两种:
基数词:表示数目多少的数词。序数词:表示先后顺序的数词。

3.基数词的写法和用法 1)1—12的基数词是独立的单词,即:
one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight, nine,ten,eleven,twelve。  2)13—19的基数词以-teen结尾。如:14—fourteen,但13,15,18较特殊,13—thirteen 15—fifteen 18—eighteen。  3)20—90的整十位均以-ty结尾。如:60—sixty,但20,30,40,50,80较特殊, 20—twenty 30—thirty 40—forty 50—fifty 80—eighty。  4) 十位数与个位数之间要加连字符号“-”,如:28—twenty-eight,96—ninety-six。  5) 百位和十位(若无十位则和个位)之间加“and”,如:148—one hundred and forty-eight , 406—four hundred and six。  6) hundred(百),thousand(千),million(百万),billion(十亿)等前面即使有具体的数词,也不能在它们的后面加s。

7) .百(hundred),千(thousand),百万(million)等词与介词of连用的时侯,用复数形式,表不确定数目,其前面不可与数字连用 8).表示“几十”的数词,复数形式可用来表示人的岁数或年代。

如:
He is in his forties. 他四十多岁。

This took place in the 1930s. 这事发生在二十世纪三十年代。

9).基数词可与其他词构成形容词。

如:
Can you say something about your two-month holiday? ?(two和month之间有连字符时,month用单数) 4. 序数词的写法和用法 1).基数词变序数词可利用口诀巧记:“一、二、三,特殊记,八去“t ”,九去“e”,“ve”要用“f”替,见“y”变成“i”和“e”,词尾加上“th”,若是遇到几十几,只变个位就可以。”   变法如下:first,second,third,eight—eighth nine—ninth,five—fifth,twelve—twelfth,twenty—twentieth,forty—fortieth,twenty-five—twenty-fifth。  其余情况均在基数词后加th。如:
six—sixth, nineteen—nineteenth , hundred— hundredth, thousand—thousandth等。

2). 序数词前常用定冠词the, 表“顺序”。但如果序数词不表示顺序,而表示“又一个,另一个”时,则不能用the, 要用a. 如:Try it a second time. 再试一下。

5. 序数词表示“名次”时,不用定冠词。

     He was first. 他得了第一名。

     Who was first? Who was second?谁是第一名?谁是第二名? 注意: 1.分数的读法:分子必须用基数词,分母用序数词。分子如果大于1,分母须用复数形式。先读分子,再读分母。分子为one时可换用a. 如:
In our class, about a third can speak English well. Two thirds 三分之二。

2.1/2读作“a(或one)half(而不是a second “一秒钟”),1/4既可读作“a(或one)quarter”又可读作 “a(或one)fourth”. 3/4:Three quarters 3.小数的读法:小数点的前的基数词与前面所讲的基数词读法完全相同;
小数点读作point,小数点后只须将数字一一读出。

15.67 读作: fifteen point six seven 4. 百分数的读法:先读基数词,再读百分号 “%”(读作percent). 5% 读作: five percent.  5.年代的读法为“两位,两位”地读。整百的后读hundred,整千的后读thousand, 前常加 the year. 如:
1937读作nineteen thirty-seven 或:nineteen hundred and thirty-seven 2000 年 读作 the year two thousand December the first, nineteen ninety-four 一九九四年十二月一日  二.冠词 1. 冠词概述:冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。

2. 冠词的种类:英语中的冠词有三种,一种是定冠词,另一种是不定冠词,还有一种是零冠词。

3. 不定冠词的用法 不定冠词a (an)与数词one 同源,是"一个"的意思。a用于辅音音素前,一般读作[e],而an则用于元音音素前,一般读做[en]。

1) 表示"一个",意为one;

2) 代表一类人或物。

 A knife is a tool for cutting with.  Mr. Smith is a doctor. 3) 词组或成语。

a little / a few / a lot / a type of / a great many / many a / in a hurry / in a minute / in a word / in a short while / after a while / have a cold / have a try / keep an eye on / 4. 定冠词的用法 定冠词the与指示代词this,that同源,有"那(这)个"的意思,但较弱,可以和一个名词连用,来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。它有以下意义:
1)特指双方都明白的人或物:定冠词the与指示代词this,that同源,有"那(这)个"的意思,但较弱,可以和一个名词连用,来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。

1)特指双方都明白的人或物:
Take the umbrella. 带上伞。

2)上文提到过的人或事:  He bought a book. I've read the book. 他买了一本书。我看过那本书。

3)指世上独一物二的事物:
the sun, the sky, the moon, the earth  4)单数名词连用表示一类事物,如:the dollar 美元; the fox 狐狸;
或与形容词或分词连用,表示一类人:the rich 富人; the living   活着的人。

5)用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词only,very,same等前面:
  Where do you live? I live on the second floor. 你住在哪?我住在二层。

  That's the very thing I've been looking for. 那正是我要找的东西。

6)用在表示身体部位的名词前:
She caught me by the hand. 她抓住了我手。

7)用在某些由普通名词构成的国家名称、机关团体、阶级、等专有名词前:
  the People's Republic of China  中华人民共和国 the United States  美国 8)用在表示乐器的名词之前:  She plays the piano. 她会弹钢琴。

9) 用在姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人:
the Greens  格林一家人 (或格林夫妇) 10) 用在惯用语中:
in the day, in the morning (afternoon,evening), the day after tomorrow   the day before yesterday, the next morning,  in the sky (water,field,country)  in the dark, in the rain, in the distance,  in the middle (of), in the end, by the way, go to the theatre 5.零冠词的用法 1) 国名,人名前通常不用冠词:England,Mary;

2)泛指的复数名词,表示一类人或事物时,可不用定冠词;

They are teachers. 3)抽象名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词;

Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。

2)在季节、月份、节日、 假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前,不加冠词;

  We go to school from Monday to Friday.  3)在三餐、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前,不加冠词 4) 当by 与火车等交通工具连用中间无冠词;
by bus,by train;

5)有些个体名词不用冠词;
如:
school,college,prison,market,hospital,bed,table,class, town,church,court 等个体名词,直接置于介词后,表示该名词的深层含义, 如:go to hospital  去医院看病   go to the hospital  去医院 (并不是去看病,而是有其他目的) 6)不用冠词的序数词;

 a. 序数词前有物主代词   b. 序数词作副词  He came first in the race.  c. 在固定词组中 at (the) first, first of all,  from first to last   实战演练(2×50) 1. There are ___ days in a year. A. three hundred sixty-five B. three hundreds and sixty-five  C. three hundred and sixty-five 2. ______visitors visit this museum every day. A. Hundred B. Hundred of C. Hundreds of 3. There are two___ people in the library. A. hundred B. hundreds C. hundreds of 4. Every year ___ watch NBA on TV. A. million people B. millions of people C. millions people 5. ____ trees will be planted in our city in 5 years. A. Thousands of B. Two thousands C. Two thousand of 6. My brother is in____. A. Three Class, One Grade B. Class Three, Grade One  C. Grade first, Class Third 7. We are going to learn___ this term. A. book six B. six book C. Book Six 8. Please turn to___. Let's read the text aloud. A. Page Two B. the page two C. second page 9. He will come here ____ tomorrow morning. A. at fifth B. at ten C. on two 10. He was doing some reading ____. A. at eight yesterday morning B. yesterday morning eight C. yesterday morning at eight 11. He began to live there____.  A. on his fifty B. at age of fifty C. in his fifties 12 They moved to the USA _ A. in 1980s B. in the 1980 ' C. in the 1980s 13.She was ___ her early twenties when she became a movie star.  A. at B. on C. in 14. There are____ months in a year. December is the____month of the year. A. twelve; twelve B. twelve; twelfth  C. twelfth; twelve 15. Sunday is the____ day of the week. A. seventh B. first C. second 16. Autumn is________ season in a year. A. the fourth B. the third C. a third 17. -What's the date today? -It’s___. A. Friday B. cloudy C. July 4th 18. Jenny was born _______. A. on July 10, 1997 B. in July 10, 1997  C. in 1997, July 10 19. Monday is the second day, and_______.  A. Tuesday is the fourth B. Thursday is the fifth C. the second is Tuesday 20. About____ of the books in our school library are written in Chinese.  A. four-fifth B. four-fifths C. fourth-fifths 21. ___ of the students are girls in our class. A. Two three B. Two threes C. Two thirds 22.___ of the world's books and newspapers are written in English.  A. Three quarters B. Three quarter C. Thirds four 23. Tom is____ in the row. A. a third B. the third C. third 24. The girl wanted to sing____ song at the party yesterday. A. two B. a second C. the second 25. Now let him have____. A. the third try B. a third try C. third try 26. Our school is only _______ walk from here. A. five-minute  B. five minute’s   C. five minutes’ 27. There are ________ days in a week. A. the seven    B. seventh      C.seven 28.Please write down the new words in the text of ________. A. Lesson Eleven    B. the Lesson Eleven     C. Lesson Eleventh   29.----How old is your sister? ------________. A. She’s fifteenth    B. She’s young     C. She’s fifteen     30. I read ______story. It is ______interesting story. A. a, an B. a, a C. the, the 31. Paris is __ European country and China is ___ Asian country. A. an, an B. a, a C. a, an 32. _____elephant is bigger than ______ horse. A. /, / B. an, a C. A, a 33. Shut _____door, please. A. a B. an C. the 34.He is now living in ______ European country.   A. a  B. an C. / 35. China is ______ old country with ______ long history.   A. an, a B. a, a C. an, the  36. My parents usually go out for ______ walk in ______ evening.   A. the, a B. a, the C. /, the 37. Her ______ first thing is to help her mother clean the room.   A. a  B. the C. / 38. The word “floor” begins with ______ “f” and the end with ______ “r”.   A. a, a  B. an, an  C. an, a  39. June 1st is ______ Children’s Day.   A. a  B. the  C. ./ 40. ______ Huanghe River is _______ second largest river in China.   A. The, the B. A, a C. The, a 41. Paris is one of ______ most beautiful cities in ______ world.   A. /, the  B. / ,/  C. the, the 42.Yesterday Mr Smith went to ______ Great Wall at ______ noon.   A. the, the B. /,/ C. the, / 43. We always have ______ milk for ______ breakfast.   A. /,/ B. the, / C. /,a 44.-Did you see my grandfather? -Oh, I saw ______old man sitting on a chair under the tree. Maybe he is. A. a B. an C. the 45.-Do you see ______man with a dog? -Oh, Yes, ______dog is black. A. the, a, The B. a, a, C. a, the 46.Who is ______better, Li Ping or Wang Dong? A. the B. a C. × 47.We go to school five days ______ week. A. a B. an C. / 48.-In which class is ______ boy in white? -He's in Class 5. A. the B. a C. an 49. We often have sports after class, and I like to play _____ soccer. A. a B. an C. / 50.More college graduates would like to work in _______ west part of our country ______ next year. A. the, the B. /, / C. the, / 参考答案 1-5 CCABA 5-10 BCABA 11-15 CCCBB 16-20 ACABB 21-25 CABBB 26-30 CCACA 31-35 CBCBA 36-40 BCCCA 41-45 CCABC 46-50 CAACC 专题三 介词、连词 一. 介词 1. 介词概述:介词表示它与后面的名词或代词与其他句子成分的关系。介词是虚词,不能单独做句子成分。介词在英语中用法很活,也无一定规律可循。在初中范围内还应学一个记住一个,特别是那些和动词的特殊搭配。

2. 常用介词的意义和用法。

  ⑴ 时间或地点介词in、on、at的用法区别:
表示时间时, in表示在一段时间里(在将来时句子中则表示在一段时间之后), on表示在具体的某一天或者某天的上下午等, at表示在某个时刻或者瞬间;
  表示地点时, in表示在某个范围之内, on表示在某个平面上或与一个面相接触,at则表示在某个具体的场所或地点。如:
He was born on the night of May 10th. I usually get up at 7:00 in the morning. His glasses are on the desk. My brother is at the bus stop. ⑵ after与in表示时间的用法区别:“after+(具体时刻/从句)”表示“在…时刻之后”常用于一般过去时态;
“in+(一段时间)”表示“在(多久)之后”,常用于将来时态。如:
He said that he would come back after 6:00. My father is coming back from Astralia in about a month. ⑶ since与for表示时间的用法区别:“since+(具体时刻/that-从句)”表示“自从…起一直到现在”,“for +(一段时间)”表示“持续一段时间”,都常用于完成时态;
如:
My father has worked in this factory since 1970. My father has worked in this factory for over 30 years. ⑷ by、in与with表示方式的用法区别:都可以表示“工具、手段”,但是by主要表示“乘坐”某个交通工具或“以……方式”,在被动句中可以表示动作的执行者;
in表示“使用”某种语言/文字,with表示“使用”某个具体的工具、手段。如:
We write with our hands and walk with our feet. Please speak in English. Let’s go to the zoo by bus. It was invented by Adison. ⑸ about与on的用法区别:都可以表示“有关…”,但是about的意义比较广,而on主要表示“有关…(专题/课程)”。如:
Tom is going to give a speech on the history of China. They are talking about the English test. ⑹ through与across、over的用法区别:
through指“穿过…(门洞/人群/树林)”;

across和over可以指“跨越…(街道/河流)”,可互换,但是表示“翻过…”时只能用over. 如:
Just then a kangaroo (鼠)ran across the road.(就在那时一只袋鼠跑过路面) There is a bridge across/over the river.(河上有座桥) They climbed over the mountain and arrived there (他们翻过大山到达了那里)/ The visitors went through a big gate into another park.(参观者们穿过一个大门来到另一个公园) (7)as与like的区别:两个词都表示“像……”,但是as译为“作为……”,表示的是职业、职务、作用等事实,而like译为“像……一样”,表示外表,不是事实。如:
Let me speak to you as a teacher.(我以老师的身份和你讲话。) Let me speak to you like a teacher.(让我像一位老师一样和你讲话) (8)in front of 与in the front of:in front of“在…的前面”, 与in the front of“在…的前部”。如:
A group of people was standing in front of the hall. In the front of the hall stood a group of people. (12)except与besides的区别:except“除了”,表示排除掉某人物,即不包含;
而besides“除了”则表示包含,即“不仅……又……”。如:
Everyone went to the park except Tom.(除了Tom,大家都去了公园)(Tom没有去公园)/ Besides maths he also studied many other subjects.(除了数学之外,他还学其他许多功课)(“数学”也是他学的功课之一)   连词 1.连词概述:连词是一种虚词,用于连接单词,短语或句子,但不单独做句子成分。按照连词的性质,可将连词分为并列连词和从属连词。并列连词如:and,but,or,for等,它们即可连接单词,短语,又可连接句子。从属连词如:when,before ,because等,它们主要引导名词性从句。           2.常见连词的用法:
 1)并列连词 的用法:  并列连词有:and, but, or, nor, so, for yet, however, as well as, both...and, not only...but also, either...or, neither...nor, still,         And:  连接单词短语句子 。如:Tom and I study in the same school.             But, or  :I have a pen but no pencil. / Would you like coffee or tea?                          Nothing but除了,只有:  I did nothing but watch it.                          Or表示否则:如:
Hurry up or you will miss the train.             for   表示后面的句子是原因。如:   He is good at piano for he practices harder than others.          Not only…but also   不仅…而且。可并列主、谓、宾、表及句子。主语并列时,谓语要就近一致。如:    Not only he but also I am a nurse.            As well as    以及,同样。并列单词、短语、句子。并列主语时,动词要随前面的主语变化 .如:He works as well as he can             Either…or    既…又…,或…或…,并列主、谓、宾、表及状语 ,如:Either come in or go out.             Neither…nor     既不…也不, 并列主、谓、宾、表、状语,并列主语时,谓语就近一致。如:Neither you nor he is lazy.             Both…and     和,既…也,并列主、谓、宾及表语。I can speak both English and French.             nor   也不,引导句子要倒装 。如:He can not play the piano, nor can I.             so    因此,所以,不和because连用。如:You like swimming, so do I. 2) 从属连词的用法: 从属连词有:after, when, before, as, while, since, until, till, if, unless, because, than, that, whether, so that  after     表示“时间”,在…之后。如:After I finished the school, I became a worker in the factory.             Although/though    表示让步, “尽管”。如:      Although she is young, she knows a lot.             as       表示时间,“当…时”,方式“象…”,原因,“由于、因为”让步,“尽管、虽然” 。如:    As it was rainy, we couldn’t go out now.             As if/as though    表方式,“似乎、好像” 。如:   He told us such a story as though he had been there before.             As long as/so long as   表条件,“只要” 。如:   As long as I am here, I’ll go to help you.             As soon as     表时间,“一…就…”。如:       I will call you as soon as I come back.             because    表原因,“因为”。如:   I have to practice more because I am not good at English.             before   表时间,“在…之前’’ 。如:   You should think more before you do it.             Even if/ even though     表让步,“即使”。如:    You should try again even if you failed.             Hardly…when    表时间,“(刚)一…就”。如:      Hardly I entered the gate when the bell rang.             if     “假如”,引导条件状语从句。如:     We will stay at home if the rain doesn’t stop.          “是否”,引导宾语从句。如;
    I don’t know if he goes shopping.              In order that     表目的,“为了,以便”。如:    We study hard in order that we can pass the exam.             No matter +疑问词     表让步,“无论,不管”。如:    No matter what you do, you should try your best.             No sooner…than   表时间,“刚一…就…”。如:   No sooner had I come home than it began to rain.                      once     表时间,“一旦…”。如: Once you read this book, you’ll never forget it.             since    表时间,“自从…以来”.如:    He has been in this city since he left school.       表原因,“既然,由于” 。如:    Since the job is dangerous, let’s do it more carefully.             so far as/as far as    表条件,“就…而言,就…而论”.如:As far as I know, it is easy for you to speak in English.             So that    表目的,“以便” 。如:    Speak loud so that everybody can hear clearly.             So…that      表结果“如此,以致”。如:    He got up so early that he caught the early bus.              than     表示比较,“比” 。如:  Things were worse than we thought.                  unless     表条件,“除非,如果不”  。如:  You will fail in the test unless you study hard.             Until/till    表时间,“直到…为止” 。如:    I’ll wait till my mother comes back.             when      表时间,“当…时’’。如:   When they got there, the train has left.             whether     “是否”引导名词性从句 。如:  Whether he can come to see us is unknown.             表让步,“不管/无论、是否”。如:Whether she is rich or poor, she is always happy.             while     表时间,“当…时” 。如:  While he was in Beijing, he visited the Great Wall.              whenever   表时间,“无论什么时候”。如:     Whenever you meet any trouble, tell me at once. 实战演练(2×50) 1.----How old are you?  ----I’m fifteen. I was born ________ 1990.  A. in    B. at    C. on    2. I study for a test _________ working with a group. A. in    B. by    C. at     3. A tsunami(海啸) happened in some southern Asian countries________ December, 2004. A. at   B. on   C. in    4. Tim’s mum is worried _______ her son’s study as he plays computer games too much. A. for     B. about    C. with    5. We should return the books to the library ______ time. A. about    B. on    C. by   6. ________ your help, my maths has improved a lot. A. With    B. Without   C. Under   7. A thief stole my wallet_______ the night of May 1st. A. at    B. in    C. on   8. James is looking ________ his cat everywhere. Have you seen it ? A. like    B. at    C. for   9. It’s not always necessary to look up the words ________ the dictionary while reading. Sometimes we need to guess. A. on    B. in     C. at    10. Zhangjiajie is famous _______ its beautiful mountains. A. from   B. at    C. for 11.Children get gifts ____ Christmas and ____ their birthdays. A. on; on    B. at; on    C. in; in    12. The plane is starting___five minutes. A. in    B. at    C. for    13. Lucy sits____ the third row, ____Jim's right. A. on; on    B. in; at    C. in; on 14.Shanghai is___ the east of China, but Japan is ___ the east of China.  A. to; in    B. in; to .    C. on; to    15. 1 like rice dumplings ____ meat ____ them. A. in; on    B. with; on    C. with; in 16. When you are ___ trouble please ask help ___ us. A. in; from    B. in; for    C. on; from    17. He put up a map ___ the back wall because there was a hole ___ it. A. on; on    B. at; in    C. on; in    18. This kind of TV is made____ China. . A. in    B. from    C. at    19. There are some birds singing___ the trees. A. in    B. on    C. at    20. Don't read ____ the sun. It's bad ___ your eyes. A. in; to    B. under; for    C. with; to    21.Some planes are flying___ the city. A. through    B. over ,    C. on ,    22. A mother camel was walking ___ her son ___ the desert. A. without; along    B. with; through C. next to; pass    23. The river runs____ the city. A. cross    B. through    C. over    24. My uncle lives ____ 56 Changan Street. A.on   B. of    C. at 25. They are waiting ___ a bus ___ the bus stop. A. for; in    B. on; at    C. for; at 26. Is there any difference ____ these two sentences? A. for    B. in    C. between 27. Our headmaster showed the visitors ____ our school. A. to    B. for    C. around    28. Nobody knew it ____ me. A. except    B. beside    C. besides    29. Do you know any other foreign language____ English. A. without    B. beside    C. besides    30. --- Can you play football? --- Yes, I can, ______ I can't play it very well. A. or  B. and  C. but  31. There is something wrong___my bike. A. at   B. in   C. with 32. -His sudden death surprised his wife. -It was so bad. His wife was surprised ____ his death. A. by   B. with   C. at   33. Don't laugh____ him, everyone will make mistakes. A. at   B. to   C. about   34. What did you have ___ breakfast? A. at   B. as   C. for   D. about 35. He can speak English_______ Chinese. A. but  B. also  C. and  36. Physics is not so easy, _______I like it very much. A. but  B. or  C. since  37. Will Tom wait for her at home ______ at the library? A. or  B. as  C. so that  38. I'll give her the gift ______ Mary arrives. A. so  B. before  C. as soon as  39. The woman was____ angry_____ she couldn't say anything. A. neither…nor  B. either…or  C. so…that 40. I can't sleep well at night, ______I often feel sleepy in the day. A. so  B. because  C. and  41. Study hard, ______ you will fall behind. A. and  B. but  C. or 42. _________ John _______I are policemen.  A. Neither ... nor  B. Either ... or  C. Both ... and  43. He didn't go to sleep ______he finished his homework.  A. till  B. before  C. until 44. Wait for me in the room _______ I come back.  A. until  B. and  C. so  45. Go along the road, _______ you'll find the bookstore at the end of it.  A. when  B. and  C. or  46. You'll be late ______ you don't get up early tomorrow morning.  A. if  B. when  C. before  47. The scientist knows two languages. He can speak _________ English _________ French.    A. either; or   B. neither; nor   C. both; and   48. His hobby is ______ reading_______ collecting stamps. It’s growing flowers.    A. either; or   B. both; and    C. neither; nor 49. Neither he nor I _______ from Canada. We are from Australia. A. is    B. are   C. am   50. Mr Smith comes from America, and he has studied Chinese in China for 5 years. So you can talk with him ________. A. either in English or in Chinese      B. not in Chinese but in English  C. just in English, not in Chinese      答案:
1-5 ABCBB 6-10 ACCBC 11-15 BACBC 16-20 BCAAB 21-25 BBBCC 26-30 CCACC 31-35 CCACC 36-40 AACCA 41-45 CCCAB 46-50 ACCCA 专题四 代词 一、 代词概述 代词是代替名词的一种词类。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的功能。

二、代词分类 英语中的代词,按其意义、特征及在句中的作用主要分为:人称代词、物主 代词、反身代词、指示代词、不定代词、疑问代词。

1、 人称代词及其用法 1)人称代词主格和宾格 人称 单、复数 主格 宾格 第一人称 单数 I me 复数 we us 第二人称 单数 you you 复数 you you 第三人称 单数 he him she her it it 复数 they them 2) 人称代词的用法 ① 人称代词主格在句子中担任主语。

例如:She likes watching movies.她喜欢看电影。

They have been to America twice..他们到过美国两次。

② 人称代词宾格在句子中担任动词宾语、介词宾语或表语。

例如:
We listen to them and they help us.我们听他们,他们帮我们。

---Who is knocking at the door? --It’s me.—谁在敲门?—是我。

2、 物主代词及其用法 1)形容词性和名词性物主代词 人称 单、复数 形容词性 名词性 词义 第一人称 单数 my mine 我的 复数 our ours 我们的 第二人称 单数 your yours 你的 复数 your yours 你们的 第三人称 单数 his his 他的 her hers 她的 its its 它的 复数 their theirs 他们的 2)物主代词的用法 ① 形容词性物主代词相当于形容词,在句子中担任定语修饰名词,一般不单独使用。

例如:This is my book. Your book is over there.这是我的书。你的书在那里。

They are our new friends.他们是我们的新朋友。

②名词性物主代词语法上相当于名词,意义上相当于“形容词性物主代词+名词”,经常用其来避免和前面提到的名词重复。

例如:This is my dictionary. Where is yours (=your dictionary)?这是我的词典。你的(词典)在哪里? My idea is just the same as his(=his idea).我的想法正如他的(想法)。

3、反身代词及其用法 1)反身代词的构成 人称 单、复数 词形 词义 第一人称 单数 myself 我自己 复数 ourselves 我们自己 第二人称 单数 yourself 你自己 复数 yourselves 你们自己 第三人称 单数 himself 他自己 herself 她自己 itself 它自己 复数 themselves 他们自己 2)反身代词的用法 ① 反身代词在句子中担任动词宾语或介词宾语。

例如:The boy is too young to look after himself.这男孩太小了无法照顾自己。

They did the job all by themselves.这件工作他们完全是自己做的。

② 反身代词常用词组 例如:teach oneself自学 learn by oneself自学 enjoy oneself玩得愉快 hurt oneself伤了自己 help oneself to自便 come to oneself苏醒 by oneself单独;
亲自 4、 指示代词及其用法 1) 指示代词:单数this(这)、 that(那);
复数these(这些), those(那些) 2) 指示代词的用法 ① this/these用于指代近距离的人或事物。

例如:This is my friend and these are his new books.这是我的朋友。这些是 他的新书。

② that/those用于指代远距离的人或事物。

例如:Look!That girl in red is Kate.瞧!那个穿红衣服的女孩是凯特。

③ 打电话时用this介绍自己,用that询问对方。

例如:This is Mar speaking. Is that Mrs Jones?我是玛丽,您是琼斯夫人吗? 5、 不定代词及其用法 不定代词是比较复杂的一类代词,在词形上有简单的不定代词和复合不定代词两种形式,分别列表如下。

1) 表一:初中阶段常见的简单的不定代词 不定代词 常用词义 some,any 一些(人或物);
任何(人或物) many,much 许多(人或物) few,little 几乎没有(人或物) a few,a little 有少数或少量(人或物) both 两者都 all 三者及以上都 either 两者之一;
或者……或者 neither 两者都不 none 三者及以上都不 another 三者以上中的任意一个 one 一个 other,others 其他的(泛指) the other,the others 其他的(特指) 表二:复合不定代词 one body thing some someone某人 somebody某人 something某事 any anyone任何人 anybody任何人 anything任何事 no no one没有人 nobody没有人 no thing没有东西 every everyone每人 everybody每人 everything每一件事 2) 不定代词的用法 在实际使用中,普通不定代词多数时候用作形容词修饰名词。

① some和any。两者均可修饰可数和不可数名词。一般情况下,some用于肯定句,any用于否定句、疑问句和条件句中。但在说话人想要得到肯定回答或表达请求、建议的疑问句中用some。

例如:There are some students in the classroom, but there aren’t any teachers. 教室里有一些学生,但没有老师。

---Would you like to have some tea or coffee? ---Neither, thanks. --想要喝茶还是咖啡?--谢谢,两个都不要。

② many 和much。many修饰可数名词的复数形式,much修饰不可数名词。

两者均可以和表示程度的副词so,too,as,how连用构成too many/much, so many/much, as many/much as, how many/much. 例如:I have too much work to do.我有太多的工作要做。

How did you make so many mistakes?你怎么会犯这么多错误? Please speak English as much as possible.请尽量说英语。

③ few, a few 和little, a little. few和a few修饰可数名词,little和a little修饰不可数名词。few,little表示否定,a few,a little表示肯定。

例如:He is a new student in the school, so he has few friends.他是本校的新生,所以几乎没有朋友(表示否定)。

I have so little money that I can’t afford the new magazine. Can you lend me some?我几乎没钱了,买不起这本杂志(表示否定)。你能借我一些吗? ---Can I have a few words with you, Mrs Brown? –Sure, I have a little time. –布朗夫人,我可以和你说几句话吗(表示肯定)?--当然可以,我有一点点时间(表示肯定)。

④ both和all。both只能用于指代两者,all指代三者或以上的人或物。

例如:My parents are both teachers. Both my brother and I are students. We all live in Changsha.我父母亲都是老师。我哥和我是学生。我们都生活在长沙。

⑤ either, neither和none。either只能是“两者中取其一”,neither是“两者都不”,是both的反义词,none“都不”是all的反义词。

例如:Either you or your sister has to help your dad in the garden.你或者你姐姐得帮助你爸爸在花园里干活。(只要一个人帮助爸爸干活即可) ---Would you like some milk or coffee? –Neither. Just water, please.—你想要牛奶还是咖啡?--都不要,水就可以。

They are all teenagers. None of them should be allowed to smoke.他们都是青少年,谁都不应该获许抽烟。

⑥ other, others, the other, the others.概括地说,不带the的为泛指,带the的为特指,带s的指代复数的人或物,不带s的指代单数的人或物。

例如:Beijing is larger than the other cities in China.北京比中国其他城市大。

Lei Feng was always ready to help others(=other people)。雷锋乐于助人。

I have only two good friends. One is Jack, the other is David.我只有两个好朋友,一个是杰克,另一个是大卫。

I bought six new books yesterday. One is English, the others(=the other books) are Chinese.我昨天买了六本书。一本是英语,其余的(书)都是中文。

⑦ one, another, one指代上文提到过的单数可数名词,避免重复。another指的是三者以 上中的任意一者,还可以表达“额外添加”的意思。

例如:This building is taller than that one.这个建筑比那栋高。

I have already spent half an hour on the job, but I need another ten minutes to finish it. 我已经花了半个小时做这件工作,但是我还要十分钟才能够完成。

⑧ 复合不定代词的句法功能可以参考some、any、no、every的用法。但下列几点必须 注意:
a)复合不定代词在句子中担任主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。

例如:Is there anything wrong with the computer?电脑出问题了吗? Everybody is here. Let’s begin the meeting.大家到齐了,我们开会吧。

b)修饰复合不定代词的形容词要放在他们的后面,做后置定语。

例如:Be quiet, please. I have something important to tell you.请安静,我有重要 的事情要告诉你们。

6、 疑问代词及其用法 疑问代词在句中起名词词组的作用,用来构成疑问句。

疑问代词 主要用法 例句 who “谁”,主格形式作主语 Who can answer the question? Who is the man over there? whom “谁”,宾格形式,口语中往往 被who代替 Whom/whom are you talking to? whose “谁的”所有格形式 Whose exercise book is this? Whose is this exercise book? what 询问不定书目中的“哪个”、 “哪些”,没有范围的限定;
也 可用于询问某人的职业 What are you going to do? What class are you in? What is your mother? which “哪个”、“哪些”,询问一定 范围内特指的人或物 Which class are you in, Class 1 or Class 2? 实战演练(2×50) 计分: 1 ---Is that man in blue your father? ---No, _______ is my headmaster. A. he B. him C. she 2. ---Laura, this is my backpack. Where is _______? ---Mine is over there. A. your B. yours C. his 3. ---Is the woman who walked past just now your teacher? ---Yes, she teaches _____ Chinese. A. us B. our C. ours 4. ---Is David _________ cousin or theirs? ---He is my cousin. A. your B. yours C. you 5. Excuse me, _____pen is broken. May I use ________? A. my, your B. I, yours C. my, yours 6. ---Is this your MP4, Mike? ---No, it’s ______. A. his B. her C. my 7. We must learn English by __________. A. us B. our C. ourselves 8. Could you lend me ______ bike? I lost ______ last Saturday. A. your, my B. your, mine C. yours, mine 9. ---Who taught _____ German? ---Nobody. She learned all by _______. A. she, her B. her, herself C. hers, herself 10. --- Which would you like, bread or rice? --- ______ of them. I’m full now. A. Either B. Neither C. All 11. ---_______does your cousin look like? ---He’s tall and thin. A. What B. Who C. Which 12. Believe yourself. You’re better than ________. You’re the best. Wish you success. A. anyone else B. some else C. else anyone 13. Most young people find _______ exciting to watch a football match. A. it B. this C. that 14. ---_______ are you talking about? ----The Olympic Games in Beijing. A. What B. How C. Whom 15. ---What about this T—shirt? ---I don’t like the color. Please show me _____one. A. other B. the other C. another 16. ---Did you enjoy ____ at the party, Jimmy? –Yes, Mum. I enjoyed ___very much. A. yours, ourselves B. yourselves, myself C. yourself, myself 17. They three were all very tired, but ______ of them would stop to have a rest. A. some B. none C. all 18. There is ______ knocking at the door. Go and see who it is. A. someone B. anybody C. nobody 19. Do you know the girl between Lucy and ______? A. she B. his C. me 20. ---Could you tell me ______ to do next? ---Nothing more. Let’s have a rest. A. what B. how C. when 21. ---Can we put our sports shoes here? ---Oh, yes. Put ______ here, please. A. them B. their C. they 22. ---______did Mr Wang leave in a hurry? ---Perhaps to meet a friend. Who knows? A. Where B. For what C. With whom 23. _____ isn’t easy to learn a foreign language well. But don’t give it up. A. That B. It C. This 24. ---Hello! ---_______is Mary speaking. Is ______ Lily? --- Yes, speaking. A. This, this B. This, that C. That, this 25. ---Who told you Sam and Kitty got married? --- A friend of _______. A. you B. her C. mine 26.There are many tall buildings on _______ sides of the street. A. either B. all C. both 27 I asked both Mary and Lucy to my birthday party, but ________ of them can come. A. both B. neither C. all 28.---Mum, Li Ming bought a parrot yesterday. Could you please buy ____ for me? ---Sure. But you must take good care of it. A. one B. it C. that 29.The weather in Hengyang is different from ______ in Beijing. A. one B. it C. that 30.As we all have grown up, we should learn to look after ________. A. ourselves B. us C. myself 31.Never say you’re a fool. Everyone is good at ________. A. something B. anything C. everything 32 I like pop music, but _______ my father _______ my mother likes it. A. both; and B. either; or C. neither; nor 33.---When shall we go to the museum, this afternoon or tomorrow morning? ---_______ is OK. I’m free these days. A. Both B. All C. Either 34 There are only _________ new words in the passage, but I know _____ of them. A. some; all B. a few; none C. lots of; a few 35 ---Who is singing in the next room? --- _______ must be Marie. A. It B. She C. This 36.The machines made in China are cheaper than ________ made in Japan. A. ones B. that C. those 37 ---Two Evening Papers, please! ---Only one copy left. Would you like to have ___, sir? A. one B. it C. this 38 ---Do you like talking with your friends on the phone or on mobile phone? ---_________. I enjoy using QQ. A. Either B. Neither C. None 39 The pears in my basket are smaller than _______ in Jim’s. A. those B. that C. ones 40.We can’t leave our grandparents by _________. A. they B. them C. themselves 41.---Can I talk to you for a minute, Brian? ---Sure. I have ______ time. A. a few B. little C. a little 42.---Is _______ here today? ---No. Han Mei isn’t here. Maybe she’s ill. A. someone B. anyone C. everyone 43.---Have you finished your task? ---No, I’ll finish it in _______ ten minutes. A. less B. other C. another 44.Mrs White has two children. _______ is a driver, and ______ is a nurse. A. One; another B. One; the other C. One; other 45.The old woman asked _______, “What should I do?” A. herself B. her C. hers 46.Either you or I _______ right. A. is B. am C. are D. be 47 We found _______ necessary to protect the environment. A. it B. this C. that 48.It was ________ fine day that they went to the park. A. so a B. a so C. such a 49._________went surfing at the beach because of the terrible weather. A. Someone B. No one C. Nothing 50.---______ did Mr Wang leave in a hurry? ---Perhaps to meet a friend. Who knows? A. How B. Where C. For what 1-5 ABAAC 6-10 ACBBB 11-15 AAAAC 16-20 CBACB 21-25 ABBBC 26-30 CBACA 31-35 ACCBA 36-40 CBBAC 41-45 CCCBA 46-50 BACBC 专题五 形容词、副 词 一、形容词 1、 形容词概述 形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。大部分形容词直接说明事物的性质或特征,有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot 热的,beautiful美丽的。有的形容词只能作表语,没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。例如:afraid害怕的,asleep睡着的。

2、 形容词的用法 1)作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前面。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing为词尾的词语即复合不定代词时,要放在这些词之后。

例如:What an interesting movie it is! 多有趣的一部电影啊! There is nothing interesting in today’s newspaper.今天的报纸没有什么有趣的内容。

2)作表语放在系动词后面。

例如:The food smells delicious. 食物闻起来很香。

3)位于宾语后做宾语补足语。

例如:You must keep your classroom clean and tidy.你们必须保持教室干净整洁。

4)少数形容词只能作表语,如:afraid, asleep, awake, alone, alive, well(健康的),ill,sorry,glad,sure,pleased等。

例如:He is alone in the classroom.他独自在教室。

She has been asleep for three hours.她睡了三个小时了。

5)某些形容词之前加上冠词the表示一类人,如 the rich, the poor, the young, the old, the deaf, the blind, the living, the dead, the hungry等。

例如:The rich should help the poor. 富人应该帮助穷人。

The young should be polite to the old.年轻人对老年人应该有礼貌。

二、副词 1、 副词概述 副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,其他副词或句子。

2、 副词的分类和用法 1) 时间副词:如now,today,yesterday,soon等,在句子中担任时间状语,是决定动词时态的主要依据之一。

例如:There is going to be a class meeting tomorrow.明天将有一个班会。

They visited the aquarium yesterday. 他们昨天参观了水族馆。

2) 频度副词:如sometimes,often, always, usually等,在句子中担任时间状语,是决定动词时态的主要依据之一。

例如:They have never seen each other before.他们以前从未见过面。

What do you usually do on weekends?你们周末通常做什么? 3) 地点副词:如here, there, home, somewhere, anywhere,outside等,在句子中担任地点状语。

例如:I have looked for my pen everywhere, but I can’t find it anywhere.我到处找了我的钢笔,但哪儿都没看见。

4) 方式副词:如slowly, quickly, fast, luckily, easily等,在句子中担任方式状语。这类副词大都由“形容词+ly”构成。

例如:Please speak more slowly so that we can hear you clearly.请慢点说以便我们能够听清楚你说的内容。

5) 程度副词:如very, quite, rather, too, much, so等,在句子中修饰形容词或其他副词,作状语。

例如:It’s much too hot in Changsha these days.这些天长沙太热了。

The little boy can play the guitar very well.这小男孩吉他弹得非常好。

6) 疑问副词:如when, where, why, how, how long, how soon, how often, how far,how old等,放在句首构成特殊疑问句。

例如:How soon will your father be back home? 你爸过多久回到家? How often do you go to the movie? 你们隔多久看一次电影? 7) 关系副词:如when, where, why, how等,用来引导相关从句。

例如:What were you doing when the UFO landed? UFO着陆时你在干什么? I ‘d like to go somewhere where people are friendly. 我想去人们友好的地方。

3、副词的位置 总的来说,很多副词的位置比较灵活,在句子开头、中间、结尾都可以。但是请注意下面几点:
1)频度副词作状语时放在be动词、助动词、情态动词之后,行为动词之前。

例如:He is never late for school.他上学从不迟到。

He usually goes to see his grandparents on Saturday. 他通常周六去看望爷爷奶奶。

2)enough修饰形容词或副词时要放在被修饰词的后面。

例如:The little boy isn’t old enough to go to school. 小男孩没到上学的年龄。

He ran fast enough to catch the thief. 他跑得够快,抓住了小偷。

三、形容词和副词的比较等级 1、 形容词和副词比较等级的构成 绝大多数形容词和副词有三个等级:原级(原形)、比较级和最高级,他们的构成规则大致相同。列表如下:
表一:规则变化 构成方法 原级 比较级 最高级 单音节 词和少 数双音 节词 一般直接在词尾加-er,-est tall short taller shorter tallest shortest 以不发音的e结尾的加-er,-st nice large nicer larger nicest largest 以辅音字母加y结尾的,先改y为i,再加-er,-est heavy early heavier earlier heaviest earliest 以重读闭音节结尾、且词尾只有一个辅音字母的,先双写该辅音字母,再加-er,-est thin big thinner bigger thinnest biggest 多音节词和部分双音节词(尤其是带词缀的双音节词) 在原级前加more,most interesting important quickly more interesting more important more quickly most interesting most important most quickly 表二:不规则变化 原级 比较级 最高级 good, well better best many, much more most bad,ill, badly worse worst little less least far farther较远(字面意义) further进一步(引申意义) farthest最远(字面意义) furthest最大限度(引申意义) old older年纪较大的(用于比较级) elder较年长的(只用作定语) oldest年纪最大的(用于最高级) eldest最年长的(只用作定语) 2、形容词、副词比较级和最高级的用法 1)两者之间进行比较用比较级。其常见句子结构为:A +谓语动词+比较级+than+B。

例如:This tree is taller than that one.这棵树比那棵树高。

Lily has more friends than I. 莉莉比我朋友多。

Tom runs faster than Jim. 汤姆比吉姆跑得快。

注:可以用程度副词a little, a lot, a bit, much, even, still, far等修饰比较级,表示比较的程度差异。

例如:It is much hotter in Changsha than that in Beijing in summer.长沙的夏天比北京的夏天热得多。

He studies English a lot harder than the other students in his class.他学英语比班上其他同学努力得多。

2)在三者或三者以上的人或物之间进行比较时用最高级,形容词最高级前必须加定冠词the,副词最高级前the可加可不加,句子中常有in或of短语来表示比较的范围。其常见句子结构为:A+谓语动词+the+最高级+比较范围。

例如:Changjiang is the longest river in China.长江是中国最长的河流。

Rruce runs fastest of the three. 布鲁斯是三个人中跑得最快的。

3)表示A和B在某一方面相同或不及时用同级比较。其常见句型为:A+谓语动词+as+原级+as+B。其否定结构为:A+谓语动词(not)+as/so+原级+as+B。

例如:English is as important as Chinese.英语和语文一样重要。

Math is not as interesting as History. 数学不如历史有趣味。

He speaks English as well as Chinese. 他英语和汉语说得一样好。

She doesn’t do her homework as carefully as her brother.她做作业不如她哥哥细心。

4)选择疑问句比较级和最高级的句型分别为:“疑问词+谓语动词+比较级,A or B?”和“疑问词+谓语动词+最高级,A,B or C?” 例如:Which is bigger, the sun or the earth?太阳或地球,哪个更大? Which is the biggest, the sun, the earth or the moon? 太阳、地球或月亮,哪个最大? Who plays soccer better, David or Martin?戴维或马丁,谁足球踢得更好? Who plays soccer best, David, Martin or Bill?戴维、马丁或比尔,谁足球踢得最好? 5)表示“越……就越……”时,其句型为“the +比较级,the+比较级”。

例如:The more trees, the better. 树木越多越好。

The harder you study, the better grades you will get. 学习越努力,成绩就越好。

6)表示“越来越……”时,用比较级的叠加形式,即:比较级+ and+比较级。

例如:It’s getting hotter and hotter. 天气越来越热了。

The city is becoming more and more beautiful. 城市越来越漂亮了。

实战演练(2×50) 计分: 1 In Huaihua it’s ________ in summer, but it is even _______ in Changsha. A. hotter, hottest B. hot, hotter C. hotter, hot 2 The sea looks very _____ when the sun is shining on it. A. beautiful B. more beautiful C. the most beautiful 3 Can you go shopping with me ? I have _______ to buy. A. something useful B. useful something C. nothing useful 4 At my birthday party, my friend Helen is _______ to make us all _______. A. enough funny, laugh B. funny enough, laugh C. enough funny, to laugh 5 The 2008 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing. What _____ news to us all at that moment! A. an exciting B. an excited C. exciting 6 His father began to work as ________ as he was seventeen. A. old B. early C. far 7 Henry is a little _________ than Bill. A. strong B. stronger C. strongest 8 ________, the healthier you will be. A. The more money you get B. The taller you are C. The better habits you have 9 The doctor told Mary to eat _________ vegetables and _______ meat because she was getting fatter and fatter. A. much; little B. more ; less C. many; few 10 ---What do you think of the lecture(演讲) of Li Yang’s Crazy English? ---I think it’s ________, but someone thinks it’s much too _______. A. wonderful enough; bored B. enough wonderful; boring C. wonderful enough; boring 11 She told us a story. Her voice sounded ________. A. sweet B. small C. clearly D. sadly 12 ---I think our chemistry teacher is working hard. He teaches us _______. ---Yes, but he hasn’t come today. He doesn’t feel _______. A. good; well B. well; well C. well; good 13 ---Mum, could I have an MP3 like this? ---Certainly, we can buy _______ one, but as good as this. A. a cheap B. a cheapest C. a cheaper 14 This sweater doesn’t suit me. It’s a bit small. Could you give me ______ one? A. a large B. a larger C. the largest 15 This math problem is ________ that one. A. not so easy as B. more easy than C. easy than 16 When winter comes, the days get ________. A. short and short B. shorter and shorter C. long and long 17 Paul is the _______ of the two children in his family. A. most fattest B. fattest C. fatter 18 ---This cake is delicious. ---Well, at least it is ________ the one I baked last week. A. as worse as B. as better than C. not worse than 19 They have just cleaned the windows, so the room looks _______. A. much brighter B. more bright C. less bright 20 ---Why didn’t you enjoy the talk? ---It was ________ talk that I had ever listened to. A. the most interesting B. the least interesting C. more interesting 21 Shanghai is bigger than _________ in Australia. A. any city B. any cities C. any other city 22 ---You have got the same shirt as I ---Yes. Mine is ______, but not so ______ as yours. A. better; expensive B. better; more expensive C. more better; expensive 23 Now the air in our town is _______ than it used to be. Something must be done to stop it. A. very good B. much better C. even worse 24 It’s _______ today than yesterday. A. quite colder B. a little colder C. much cold 25 Who runs ______, Tom or Jim? A. fast B. faster C. fastest 26 We should use ______ plastic bags to protect our environment. A. more B. less C. fewer 27 ---________ is Lucky 52 shown on CCTV-2? ---Every week. A. How far B. How often C. How long 28 My classmates don’t smoke. I don’t, ________. A. too B. neither C. either 29 ---What do you think of the football match? ---Wonderful. They have never played ______. A. best B. better C. worse 30 Though the player is over thirty, he can still run ______ some younger players. A. as fast as B. so fast as C. much fast than 31 ---You are standing too near to the TV. Can you move a bit _______? ---OK, Mom. Is it all right here? A. faster B. slower C. farther D. nearer 32 Though he has studied ____ at Russian for ten months, he can still _____ speak the language. A. hard; hard B. hardly; hardly C. hard; hardly 33 Don’t worry, sir. I’m sure I can run ______ to catch up with him. A. fast enough B. enough fast C. slowly enough 34 Of all the students, Linda draws ________ carefully. A. most B. much C. more 35 Wang Ping does ______ in physics of all the subjects. A. badly B. most badly C. worst 36 ---How does Bill drive now, Sue? ---He drives _______ me. A. much more careful than B. as careful as C. even more carefully than 37 Please write to me as______ as possible. A. soon B. quickly C. fast 38 ou will realize the importance of mastering a foreign language ______ in the future. A. sometime B. some times C. sometimes 39 It’s _______ a beautiful stamp. A. quite B. too C. very 40 Bob never does his homework _______ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes. A. so careful as B. as carefully as C. carefully as 41 Among the three boys he works perhaps the ____________. A. hard B. harder C. hardest D. most hard 42 She always finishes her homework on time. She _______ leaves it for tomorrow. A. always B. never C. usually 43 The more we look at the picture, ______. A. the better we liked it B. the less we like it C. we like it less 44 Who used to get up ________ in your class during the summer trip? A. earlier B. earliest C. the most early 45 ---Do you prefer music to drawing? ---No. I like drawing _______. A. well B. most C. better 46 Don’t worry. We’ve got ________ for all of you. A. big enough a room B. enough big a room C. a big enough room 47 Can you imagine that _______ little ants can carry ______ many big worms? A. so; so B. such; such C. such; so D. so; such 48 ---Did Han Meimei pick a lot of apples? ---Yes. She picked _______ than any of us. A. many more B. much more C. the most 49 ---Who jumped the _______ of all in the long jump? ---Li Lei did. A. longest B. longer C. farthest 50 Beijing has _____ many buses that there is often a traffic jam in rush hours. A. so B. very C. too 01-05 BAABC 06-10 BBCBC 11-15 ABCBA 16-20 BCCAB 21-25 AACBB 26-30 CBCBA 31-35 CCAAC 36-40 CAAAB 41-45 CBBBC 46-50 CCACA 专题六 动词的分类 一、动词概述及分类 根据其句法功能,动词可以分为四大类,列表如下。

动 词 1、实义动词(行为动词) 及物动词 +宾语,构成主谓宾句型 +双宾语,构成主谓双宾句型 +复合宾语,构成主位复宾句型 不及物动词 2、连系动词 be, seem, look, sound, smell, turn, get, become等+表语,构成主系表句型 3、助动词 be +doing,构成进行时 +done,构成被动语态 have +done,构成完成时态 +been doing,构成完成进行时态 肯定式do(does,did);

否定式:don’t(doesn’t,didn’t) 帮助行为动词的一般现在时、一般过去时构成疑问句;

帮助行为动词的一般现在时、一般过去时构成否定与 will, shall, should, would +动词原形构成将来时 4、情态动词 can, may, must, might, could等 后接动词原形一起构成谓语 二、实义动词及用法 实义动词也叫行为动词,是四类动词中唯一能独立作谓语的一类动词。根据其句法功能可以分为及物动词和不及物动词两类。

1、及物动词 及物动词本身意义不够完整,需要后接宾语才能使其意思完整。

1)动词+宾语,构成主谓宾句型。

例如:Could you please clean the blackboard? 请你擦黑板好吗? We learn English every day. 我们每天学习英语。

2)动词+直接宾语+to/for+间接宾语 / 动词+间接宾语+直接宾语,构成主谓双宾句型。有的动词必须在后面带表示人的间接宾语和表示物的直接宾语,即两个宾语才能表达完整的意思。

例如:Who teaches you English? 谁教你们英语? Please pass me the book.= Please pass the book to me.请把那本书递给我。

My mother bought me a snow globe on my birthday. = My mother bought a snow globe for me on my birthday. 我过生日时我妈买给我一个雪球。

常见的带双宾语的动词有:pass, give, bring, buy, get, leave, lend, make, cook, teach, tell, write, read, return, ask, show等。

3)动词+宾语+宾语补足语,构成主谓复宾句型。有的动词必须在宾语后再加上形容词、副词、名词、不定式、-ing形式、介词短语等做宾语补足语,构成复合宾语,句子意思才能够表达完整。

例如:Please keep the door open. 请让门开着。(形容词open做宾补) I often see the children play in the park。我经常看见孩子们在公园里玩。(不带to的不定式play做宾补). You can call me Mrs Jones.你们可以称呼我琼斯夫人。(名词Mrs Jones做宾补) 动词see, hear, watch, make, let, have, notice, find等经常以动词不定式或-ing形式做宾补。

2、不及物动词 1)不及物动词自身意思完整,无需再接宾语。

例如:Horses run fast。马儿跑得快。

He sings well. 他唱得好。

2)很多不及物动词也可以用作及物动词,还有的不及物动词后带上某个介词就成了带宾语的及物动词。

例如:They are reading. 他们在朗读。(read为不及物动词) They are reading English. 他们在朗读英语。(read为及物动词) He is waiting at the bus stop.他在公交车站等。(wait为不及物动词) He is waiting for me at the bus stop.他在公交车站等我。(wait for为及物动词,带me做宾语) 三、连系动词 连系动词本身有词义,但不能单独作谓语,必须和其后面的表语一起构成合成谓语,说明主语的性质、特征、状态或身份。

常见的连系动词有be, become(变得、成为), get(变得), look(看起来),seem(似乎、好像),turn(变得),sound(听起来),smell(闻起来),taste(尝起来),feel(摸起来)等。除be以外的连系动词大多数时候是实义动词,他们用作连系动词时多数没有进行时态,也没有被动语态。

例如:He is angry.他生气了。

He got angry at the news.听到这个消息他生气了。

That sounds good.那听起来不错。

Trees turn green when spring comes.春天来临,树叶转绿。

China is getting stronger and stronger.中国正变得越来越强大。

四、助动词 助动词本身没有词义或意思不完整,不能单独作谓语。它们的主要作用是帮助构成时态、语态、疑问句或否定句等。

1、助动词be(am, is, are, was, were) 1) be+doing(现在分词), 构成进行时 例如:They are listening to music.他们在听音乐。(be的现在时形式帮助构成现在进行时) They were walking down the street when the UFO landed.(be的过去时形式帮助构成过去进行时) 2)be+done(及物动词的过去分词), 构成被动语态 例如:The light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison.电灯泡是由托马斯.爱迪生发明的。(be的过去时形式帮助构成过去时的被动语态) The classroom is cleaned every day.教室每天打扫。(be的现在时形式帮助构成现在时的被动语态) The problem will be solved next week.这个问题将在下周得到解决。(be的将来时形式帮助构成将来时的被动语态) 2、have (has, had) 1)have/has/had+done(动词的过去分词),构成完成时态。

例如:They have already done their homework.他们已经完成作业。(have+过去分词构成现在完成时) He hasn’t come yet.他还没有回来。(has+过去分词构成现在完成时) The bus had gone when I got to the bus stop.我到达车站时公交车已经离开。(had+过去分词构成过去完成时) 2)have/has/had+been+doing(动词的现在分词),构成完成进行时态。

例如:How long have you been collecting shells?你收集贝壳有多长时间了? He has been studying English since five years ago.他从5年前开始就一直在学习英语。

3、助动词do/ does/ did 助动词do/ does/ did主要帮助构成疑问句,也可用于倒装句、强调句或代替上文提到过的行为等。他们的否定式don’t/ doesn’t/ didn’t帮助构成否定句。

例如:Does he often play sports after school?他经常放学后做运动吗? We don’t speak Japanese.我们不说日语。

Did they visit the Palace Museum on their last day off?他们上个休息日参观故宫了吗? She didn’t watch TV yesterday evening.她昨晚上没看电视。

4、助动词will, shall, would, should 助动词will, shall主要用于构成一般将来时,其中will可用于各人称,而shall一般只用于第一人称。would,should是will,shall的过去式,可以用于构成过去将来时,但很多时候被用作情态动词。

例如:There will be more trees and less pollution in the future.将来会有更多的树木,更少的污染。(帮助构成一般将来时) Shall we go to the park on the weekend?我们周末去公园好吗?(一般将来时,用于提出建议) They said they would come the next day.他们说他们第二天来。(帮助构成过去将来时) Would you mind my turning down the radio?你介意我关小收音机吗?(用于礼貌地提出建议) You should lie down and rest. 你应该躺下休息。(用于提供建议) 5、情态动词can, may, must, might, could等 情态动词具有一定的词义,用以表达说话人的态度或情感,必须和后面的实义动词一起构成合成谓语。(请详见专题七 情态动词) 实战演练(2×30) 计分: 1 Good news, boys! There is going to ______ a basketball match next week. A. have B. has C. be 2 Kangkang hardly has lunch at school on Sunday, ________? A. does he B. has he C. doesn’t he 3 You had a good time during the May Day holiday, _______ you? A. hadn’t B. didn’t C. haven’t 4 ---She’s back from Australia, _________ she? ---Yes, she came back last night. A. wasn’t B. hasn’t C. isn’t 5 Linda, please ______ these flowers ______ the classroom. A. bring; in B. take; in C. take; to 6 ---Would you mind turning down the TV? ---________. A. Yes, I would mind B. No, I didn’t C. No, not at all 7 ---How long _______ you _______ this TV set? ---For five years. A. did; buy B. have; had C. were; buying 8 She has finished her homework, ________? A. hasn’t she B. does she C. has she 9 This week, the weather___ to change every day: One day is hot, the next is cold. A. seems B. looks C. sounds 10 I told my mother I wasn’t worried about my exam. But in fact, I _____. A. did B. was C. have 11 ---When ______ your mother _______ you that blue dress , Mary? ---Sorry , I really can’t remember. A. does; buy B has; bought C. did; buy 12 ---You seem to know much about the city. ---That’s true . I ____ it three times . A. visited B. had visited C. have visited 13 Hi, Mr.Smith . I didn’t know you were in New York. How long ____ here ? A. have you come B. were you C. have you been 14 Time goes by fast. We must never miss the chance to show love to our parents and make them ___how much they mean to us. A. to know B. knowing C. know 15 ----It’s a secret between us . Don’t tell anybody ! ----- Sure,_____. A I, do B I, won’t C I will 16 ---Excuse me. You shouldn’t smoke here. Look at the sign “NO SMOKING HERE”. ---Sorry, I ________ it. A. doesn’t see B. haven’t seen C. didn’t see 17 There _______ a lot of changes here since 1980. A. have been B. have had C. will be 18 The car doesn’t work. What ______ we _______? A. do; do B. are; doing C. shall; do 19 I love to go to the seaside in summer. It _______ good to lie in the sun or swim in the water. A. does B. feels C. gets 20 He told me he ______ care of my child while I ______ away. A. will take; am B. took; was C. would take; was 21 Jean wants to go to China but she ______ money. A. doesn’t have B. doesn’t have no C. does have 22 In our school library there ______ a number of books on science and the number of them _______ growing larger and larger. A. is; are B. are; is C. has; is 23 Will you please ______ me your math book this afternoon? A. lending B. lend C. to lend 24 ---Do you plant trees in spring? ---Yes. Many trees _______ in our city every year. A. are planting B. are planted C. were planted 25 Now Chinese is becoming more and more popular. It ____ in many schools around the world. A. teaches B. is teaching C. is taught 26 ---Do you know the Winter Olympic Games? ---Sure. Once the Winter Olympics _______ the White Olympics. A. call B. called C. was called 27 Children should _____ not to break the traffic rules. A. tell B. be telling C. be told 28 ---What’s wrong with you, Sandy? You look so worried. ---My pet cat _______ by a car this afternoon. And it is in hospital now. A. is hit B. was hit C. hit 29 ---Mum, can I go skating now? ---Well, you may go after your homework_______. A. has finished B. will finish C. is finished 30 We are often told ______ at people who are in trouble. A. not to smile B. to smile C. not to laugh 1-5 CABBC 6-10 CBAAB 11-15 CCCCB 16-20 CACBC 21-25 ABBBC 26-30 CCBCC 专题七 情态动词、系动词 在英语中,表示主语动作或状态的词就叫做动词。根据动词的意义及在句子中的作用,可将动词分为实义动词(v)、系动词(link-v)、情态动词(modal verb)和助动词(v. aux)四种类型。

下面我们就来看看情态动词和系动词的具体用法。

一、情态动词 情态动词本身有一定的意义,但不能独立作谓语,要和动词原形一起构成谓语,表说话人的语气和态度。它没有人称和数的变化。常见的情态动词有:
1. can表示能力,有“能”“会”的意思;
表示可能性,多用在否定或疑问句中;
表示请求和许可。

如:The parrot can speak three languages. 这只鹦鹉能讲三种语言。

Can I borrow the book from the library?我可以从图书棺借这本书吗? Shanghai can be very cold in March. 上海三月份可能会很冷。

拓展延伸can还有过去式could 可表“能,会”,又可以和be able to替换,而be able to有 更多时态。

如:
He could swim when he was four. =He was able to swim when he was four. 他四岁时就会游泳。

在一般疑问句中,can/could 常用来表示请求或征求对方意见,用could 比用can语气更加委婉和客气。类似用法的还有Will /Would you (please)…等句型。

如:Could you tell me how I can get to the post office? 你能告诉我怎样到邮局吗? Would you please turn up the radio?请你把收音机开大点,好吗? 2.may表示“许可”时,相当于can,其否定回答用can’t/mustn’t;
表推测时,常用在肯定句中,表“可能”。

如:-May I borrow your ruler?我可以借用您的直尺吗? -No, you can't /mustn't. 不行。

She may be a teacher. 她可能是一名教师。

拓展延伸may可表示祝愿。如:
May you succeed! 祝你成功! 3.must表示“必须;
必要”,以“must”开头的一般疑问句其肯定回答用“must”,否定回答用“needn't”或“don't have to”。

must表推测时,常用在肯定句中,是“一定”的意思,其否定形式mustn ' t表“禁止”的意思。

如:-Must I leave now?现在我必须离开吗? -No,you needn't /you don't have to. 没有必要。

This book must be Lucy's . Look! Her name is on the book cover. 这本书是露西的。看!封面上还有她的名字。

You mustn't draw on the wall. 你不准在墙上画画。

拓展延伸must表示说话人的主观看法,只有一般现在时;
have to强调客观要求,有时态、人称和数的变化。如:
My mother is ill. I have to look after her now. 妈妈病了,我得去照看她。

4.need作情态动词时,常用在否定和疑问句中,表示“需要;
要”的意思。

如:Need we finish the work now?现在我们需要完成这项工作吗? They needn ' t look after him. 他们不需要照顾他了。

拓展延伸need还可以用作行为动词,可以用于各种句型。如:
Does he need any help? 他需要帮助吗? The desk needs repairing. 这张桌子需要修理。

5.shall 用于第一人称,表示说话人征求对方意见,过去式为should;
will 用手第二人称的疑问句中,表示说话人向对方提出请求和建议,过去式为would。

如:Shall I go shopping with you?'我可以同你去购物吗? I don't know what I should do next. 我不知道下一步该干什么。

Would you please come a little earlier?请你来早一点好吗? 6.情态动词had better的用法 (1)had better 后接动词原形,表劝告、建议,意为“最好”。“You'd better… ”含有强制命令的语气,对长辈不宜使用。

如:You'd better ask that policeman over there. 你最好问一下那边的那个警察。

(2)慎用had better! 注意以下四条:
①had better表达的是说话者强硬性的建议,告诫别人(包括自己)如何做。

如:Granny, the hospital is not very near. We'd better catch a bus. 奶奶,医院不是很近。我们最好坐公共汽车。

②had better不用于礼貌的请求或征询,它隐含一种警告或威胁。

如:You ' d better finish the work today and bring it tomorrow. 你最好今天就把作业完成,明天带来。

③had better意思接近should,但它除了表示语气强硬以外,还表示马上要去做的事情,比should更紧迫。

如:You’d better see a doctor at once. 你最好马上去看医生。

④had better不含比较的意思,该结构表示“It would be good to… ”,而不是“It would be better to…”。

二、系动词 系动词有实际意义,但不能单独做谓语,必须与表语一起构成句子的谓语,说明主语的性质、状态或身份等。

它分为完全系动词和不完全系动词。

1.完全系动词(be)可接名词、代词、形容词、副词、介词短语、非谓语动词短语、句子做表语。如:
I'm a student. 我是个学生。(名词) He is fine. 他很好。(形容词) It is me. 是我。(代词) Are you there?你在那儿吗?(副词) She is at school. 她在学校读书。(介词短语) He is to come soon. 他过会儿该来了。(不定式) My job is teaching English. 我的工作是教英语。(动词的ing形式) My idea is that we will start now. 我的想法是我们现在就开始。(句子) 2.不完全系动词 (get,turn,feel,smell,look,sound,taste)一般只接形容词做表语。如:When spring comes, it gets warmer and warmer. 春天来了,天气变得越来越暖和了。

Food may go bad soon if it is not put into a fridge. 食物如果不放进冰箱里就会很快变坏。

My brother became / turned a teacher after his graduation. 我哥哥毕业后就当上了老师。(注意become和turn的用法区别) 实战演练(2×50) 计分: 1. --Mary, ____ you speak Chinese? -- Yes, but only a little. A. will B. can C. could 2. --Must I do the work now? -- No, you ____. You can do it later. A. can't B. mustn't C. needn’t 3. -- I can't stop smoking, doctor. -- For your health, I'm afraid you ____. A. can B. need C. must 4. -- Whose book is it? -- It ____ be Bob's sister's. She is only a baby. A. must B. mustn't C. can't 5. -- Jill looks so painful, there ____ be something wrong with her. -- Oh, dear! We'd better take her to the hospital at once. A. can B. should C. must 6. --Is Simon coming by train? -- He should, but he ____ not. He likes driving his car. A. may B. need C. must 7. -- May I try on the jeans? -- Yes, you ___. A. should B. can C. must 8. -- Do you know any traffic rules? -- A little. When the traffic lights are red, we ____ stop and wait. A. may B. can C. must 9. I think schools ____ allow students at least one hour a day for sports. A. would B. should C. could 10. -- Can I swim in the lake. Dad? -- No, you ____. Haven't you seen the notice “No Swimming”? A. may not B. mightn't C. mustn't 11. -- Are you going to Beijing by air? -- It's fast but a little expensive. So I am not sure. I __ take it. A. will B. may C. must 12. -- Could I borrow your dictionary? -- Of course you ____. A. can B. will C. should 13. --Don't forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow. --No,____. A. I don't B. I won't C. I can't 14. -- Will you please stay here for the party? -- Sorry, I ____. I'll have to go to an important meeting. A. mustn't B. needn't C. can't 15. -- Must I tidy the room now? -- No, you ____. You can do it after breakfast. A. mustn’t B. need C. don't have to 16. -- You must come back every month. -- Yes, I ____. A. will B. must C. should 17. -- Is this coat Jane's? -- It ____ be hers, but I'm not sure. A. will B. may C. must 18. -- ____ we go and fly kites today? -- That's a good idea. A. Should B. Must C. Shall 19. --ls your brother playing computer games, Ted? -- He ___ do that because the computer doesn't work. A. may not B. can't C. mustn't 20. -- I don't mind telling you what I have known. -- You ___, and I am not asking you for it. A. needn't B. mustn't C. may not 21. _____ you help me? A.Will B.Shall C.Must 22. You ______watch TV if you’ve finished your homework. A. can B. must C. need 23. I have seen lights in that empty house. Do you think I _____report it to the police? A. should B. may C. will 24. -- Who is the girl standing over there? -- Well, if you ______know, her name is Mary. A. may B. can C. must 25. -- Excuse me, could you tell me where the supermarket is? -- It’s two blocks straight ahead. You _____miss it. A. mustn’t B. can’t C. shouldn’t 26. -- Mom, there goes the bell. -- Oh, it _____ Annie. I invited her to come for dinner. A. can’t be B. must be C. may be 27. I’ll let you see the patient in an hour if you _____wait here. A. will B. must C. can 28. Whoever can answer one of my questions ______get a prize. A. would B. should C. will 29. Tom, you ______leave all your clothes on the floor like this. A. wouldn’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t 30. It’s 7:50. You ____hurry, or you’ll be late. A. might B. will C. had better 31. In spring, all the flowers in the garden _______ sweet. A. taste B. smell C. become 32. She _______ like her mother in character. A. is B. seems C. looks 33. In late autumn leaves _______ brown. A. get B. turn C. come 34. Look! There _______ so many people here on vacation. A. have B. are C. be 35. His classmate_______ a singer. A. were B. grew C. has become 36. My job is ______ you math. A. to teach B. teaches C. taught 37. How time flies! Three years _______ really a short time. A. are B. is C. was 38. It sounds _______ a good idea. A. as B. is C. like 39. Her temperature _______ to be all right. A. seems B. sounds C. looks 40. His wish to become a driver has _______ true. A. turned B. come C. been 41. Little Jim’s speech sounds _______. A. friendly B. wonderfully C. nicely 42. When her mother came home yesterday, it was _______ dark. A. going B. running C. getting 43. These apples taste _______. A. to be good B. good C. well 44. -- How about the cloth you bought yesterday? -- That’s very beautiful. It _______ so soft. A. felt B. feels C. is feeling 45. When his brother telephoned him last night, he _______ asleep. A. felt B. fell C. fall 46. The food will _______ bad easily in such hot weather. A. go B. went C. turn 47. It _______ that he was late for the train. A. looks B. says C.seems 48. What does your brother look _______? A. like B. as C. after 49. The girl’s voice is so sweet and her songs _______ very beautiful. A. taste B. look C. sound 50. What a lovely day! I hope it _______ fine. A. stayed B. will stay C. will get 参考答案 1-5BCCCC 6-10ABCBC 11-15BABCC 16-20ABCBA 21-25AAACB 26-30BACBC 31-35BABBC 36-40ABCAB 41-45ACBBB 46-50ACACB 专题八 动词时态 动词时态是中考英语的热点、难点之一。中考共考查八种时态的构成和用法。

一、一般现在时 1. 表示习惯性、经常性的动作,用一般现在时。句中常含always,often,usually,sometimes,once a week,every day等标志词。如:
They come to school at seven every day. 他们每天7点钟到学校。

My mother often does some washing after breakfast. 我妈妈常常吃完早餐后洗衣服。

2. 表示客观事实和客观真理要用一般现在时。如:
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 太阳从东方升起,西方落下。

She said that lights run faster than sound. 她说光比声音传播得快。

3. 如果主句用将来时态,那么when,before,after,until,as soon as等引导的时间状语从句和if,unless等引导的条件状语从句要用一般现在时。如:
As soon as I get there, I'll telephone you. 我一到那儿就打电话给你。

If I have time tomorrow, I'll go with you. 假如我明天有时间的话,我将同你一起去。

I'll tell you as soon as he comes back this afternoon. 今天下午他一回来我就告诉你。

注:
一般现在时的构成为“主语+v./v-s(-es)+其它”。谓语是行为动词时要借助动词do / does来帮助提问、否定、回答,帮助提问、否定时行为动词要还为原形。如:
-Does he get up early every day?他每天起得早吗? -Yes, he does. 是的。

Lucy doesn' t have lunch at school. Lucy不在学校吃中餐。

【拓展延伸】 “go,start,leave,come,begin,stop,want”等动词的一般现在时可表示安排或计划好将来的动作。如:
They leave for Beijing tomorrow. 明天他们动身去北京。

二、现在进行时 现在进行时表示此时此刻或当前这一段时间正在进行的动作,也可表示现阶段正在进行的动作。句中多有now,these days,Listen! Look!等提示词。现在进行时由“am/ is/are+v-ing”构成。如:
Look! The children are playing soccer on the playground. 瞧! 孩子们正在操场上踢足球。

We are having an English class now. 现在我们正在上英语课。

【拓展延伸】 (1)表位置移动的词如come,go,leave,start,fly,die等的进行时表将来时的意义。如:The bus is leaving now. 这辆公共汽车就要离开了。

We are coming here. 我们就来了。

(2)现在进行时与always连用时表示具有“赞叹”或“厌烦”等感情色彩。如:
He is always thinking more of others than himself. 他总是想着别人而不考虑自己。

He is always talking in class. 在课堂上他总是说话。

三、一般过去时 一般过去时表示过去发生的动作或状态,也可表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。它常与ago,last week,yesterday,just now等过去的时间连用。一般过去时构成为“主语+动词的过去式+……”。如:He used to make model ships last year. 他去年经常制作轮船模型。

What did you say just now?你刚才说什么? 注:谓语是行为动词时必须借助助动词did来帮助提问、否定、回答,帮助提问、否定时行为动词要用原形。如:
-Did you pick the apples on the farm last October? 去年十月你们在农场里摘了苹果吗? -No,we didn' t. 没有。

We didn't pick the apples on the farm last October. 去年十月我们没有在农场摘过苹果。

四、一般将来时 一般将来肘表示将来时间要发生的动作。它常与tomorrow,next month,in two days,soon等将来的时间连用。一般将来时构成为“主语+will/shall/be going to+动词原形……” 如:Will you come here in two days?两天后你会来这里吗? I'm not going to fly a kite this afternoon. 今天下午我不打算放风筝。

【拓展延伸】 (1)be to do sth. 可表按计划安排将要发生的动作。

如:These books are to come out. 这些书将出版了。

(2)Shall I(we)+动词原形……?表示“我(我们)……好吗?”;
Will you please +动词原形……?表示“你(你们)……好吗?”。此时两者均为询问对方意见用语。

如:Will you please wake me up tomorrow?请你明天叫醒我好吗? Shall I get some chalk?要我拿些粉笔来吗? 五、现在完成时 1. 现在完成时表示过去的动作对现在造成了影响和结果,它常与already,yet,never,ever,just,before,once,recently等副词连用。

如:Have you read the book yet?你看了那本书吗? I've never been to Shanghai before. 我以前从来没有去过上海。

2. 现在完成时还可表示过去已经开始,持续到现在或将来的动作或状态,常与so far,ever since,how long,in the past/last two years,since…ago,“for +段时间”、“since十点时间”、“since +/从句(用一般过去时)”等连用。如:
I have known him for three years. 我认识他有三年了。

I’ve lived here since I was born. 自出生后,我就住在这里。

注:此种用法要求在肯定句中的谓语动词必须是延续性动词。但在否定句中,非延续性动词可与时间段连用。如:
We haven't heard from her for a long time. 我们很长时间没有收到她的来信了。

3. 现在完成时的构成为“主语+have/has +过去分词……” 六、过去进行时 过去进行时表示过去某时或某段时间正在发生的动作,常与从句等特定的过去时间连用。其构成为“主语+was/were+v-ing…”。

如:They were watching TV at this time last night. 昨晚这个时候他们正在看电视。

He said he was having supper at six yesterday. 他说他昨天6点钟正在吃晚饭。

七、过去将来时 过去将来时表示过去某时来看将要发生的动作或事情。它常用在主句是一般过去时,从句的动作比主句更后发生的宾语从句中,其构成为“主语+would/was(were)going to+动词原形……”。

如:She told me she would go there tomorrow. 她告诉我她明天将去那里。

He said he was going to stay here. 他说他打算呆在这里。

八、过去完成时 过去完成时常用在主句是一般过去时,从句的动作比主句更前发生的宾语从句中,表“过去的过去”。其构成为“主语+had +过去分词……”。

如:How many songs have you learned by the end of last term?到上学期你们学会了多少首歌?When we got to the cinema, the film had been on for five minutes. 当我们到达电影院时,电影已经开始五分钟了I heard he had lived there for five years. 我听说他住那五年了。实战演练(2×50) 计分: 1. —What do you do? —I’m an engineer. I _____ in a company in Wuhan. I like my job very much. A. work B. had worked C. will work 2. —Is your father a doctor? —Yes, he is. He__________ in Town Hospital. A. has worked B. had worked C. works 3. Every year many foreigners _________to China to learn Chinese. A. have come B. comes C. come 4.My mother will take me to the movie if she _________ free this weekend. A. is B. will be C. would be 5.The girls will have a trip if it _________fine. A. is B. has been C. will be 6. —Where’s Susan, Mike? —She _________ in the kitchen. A. cooks B. cooked C. is cooking 7. —Have you got a job offer? —Not yet. I ___________. A. waited B. am waiting C. wait 8. —Do you think John will help me move the piano? —You’d better not ask him. He __________ a composition. A. wrote B. writes C. is writing 9. —Where are the children, Mr Black? —Oh, they _________ their PE lesson on the playground. A. have B. had C. are having 10.They ________ about “Super Girls”. Let’s join them. A. talk B. are talking C. have talked 11.—What are you doing, Cathy? —I’m __________my cat. I can’t find it. A. looking for B. looking at C. looking after 12.—Mary, could you help me? —Wait a moment. I _________. A. read a book B. am cooking dinner C. was watching TV 13.—Listen,who _________ in the room? —Let’s go and see. A. is crying B. crying C. cries 14.Don’t turn off the radio. I _______ to the news. A. listen B. have listened C. am listening 15.—What’s the best food you’ve had in Beijing, Alex? —Roasted duck! I _________to a famous restaurant to have it last week. A. have gone B. go C. went 16.He went into his room, _______ the light and began to work. A. has turned on B. turns on C. turned on 17. —What did you do after school yesterday? —I _________basketball with my friends. A. play B. played C. am playing 18.Yesterday, Tony’s family _________ a good time. A. has B. have C. had 19. I’m sorry you’ve missed the train. It _______10 minutes ago. A. left B. has left C. had left 20. —Hi, Kate. You look tired. What’s the matter? —I ______well last night. A. didn’t sleep B. don’t sleep C. haven’t slept 21.—What did the teacher say just now? —He __________us not to play computer games all day. A. tells B. told C. has told 22.—Where’s the cake I made this morning? —We _______ it, mum. Can you make another one for us? A. ate B. eat C. were eating 23.—Have you mended your shoes,Bob? —Yes. I_________ them twenty minutes ago. A. have mended B.mended C.had mended 24.—When _______________ for Hong Kong, do you know? —I’m not sure. When he __________, I’ll let you know. A. he leaves ;leaves B. he will leave; will leave C. will he leave; leaves 25.—Where will they go next Sunday? —They ___________ to the Great Wall. A. will go B. go C. has gone 26.—Has he returned the library book yet? —Not yet. Don’t worry. He _________it soon. A. returns B. has returned C. will return 27. I hear that he will be back ______ two weeks’ time. A. after B. in C. for 28.He doesn’t tell me when he__________. I’ll call you up as soon as he __________. A. will come, arrives B. comes, arrives C. will come, will arrive 29.If it_____________ tomorrow, we_______ travel outside. A. will rain; will B. rains; won’t C. will rain; won’t 30.—Jim, can you help me to wash the dishes? —Sorry, Dad. I____________ to the shop. A. go B. have been C. am going 31.— _________ the latest Time magazine ________yet? —Sorry, it’s late. Maybe tomorrow. A. Will; arrive B. Has; arrived C. Do; arrive 32.Susan isn’t here now. She ________ to England. She will come back next month. A. goes B. has gone C. went 33.—How long ________Korean girl _________China? —For four years. Now she can speak Chinese. A. has; been to B. has; been in C. was; in 34.—Would you like to see the film with me? —I’m sorry I ________ it twice. A. saw B. had see C. have seen 35. She__________ that same song so many times. I’m getting sick of it! A. sings B. sang C. has sung 36.—___________you __________your dictionary? —No, so I have to buy a new one today. A. Did; find B. Have; found C. Had; found 37. I _________to Cape Town, so I know nothing about it. A. don’t travel B. haven’t traveled C. hadn’t traveled 38.—______you ______the film Harry Potter 7? —Not yet. I’ll see it this Sunday. A. Did; see B.Have; seen C. Do; see 39.I won’t forget my teacher because she_________ so kind to me since I came to this school. A. has been B. is C. has 40.In the past few years there ___________ great changes in my hometown. A. have been B. were C. are 41.—It’s raining! When did it start? —I don’t know exactly. In fact, it __________all this afternoon. A. lasts B. has lasted C. lasted 42.—Kitty, will you go to see the film Cold Mountain this evening? —No, I won't. I__________ it already. A.saw B.have seen C.see 43.—I didn’t see you when I came here last night. Where were you? —I ___________ my project at home. A. designed B. have designed C. was designing 44.My mother ____________ dinner when I came back. A. cooks B.is cooking C. was cooking 45.— I called you yesterday evening, but there was no answer. —Oh.I'm sorry. I_____________ dinner at my friend’s home. A. had B. was having C. have had 46.—What did the teacher say just now? —Sorry. I didn’t catch it. I __________________something else. A. think B. am thinking C. was thinking 47.—I knocked into a tree when I went to the railway station for my friend. —I suppose you ___________too fast. A. drove B. are driving C. were driving 48.When I went to say goodbye to Anna, she ______________ the piano. A. is playing B. played C. was playing 49.His parents wanted to know what he __________ at that time. A. is doing B. was doing C. has done 50.Mary___________ the piano well. She is often asked to play at the concert. A. played B. plays C. playing 参考答案 1-5ACCAA 6-10CBCCB 11-15ABACC 16-20CBCAA 21-25BABCA 26-30CBABC 31-35BBBCC 36-40BBBAA 41-45ABCCB 46-50CCCBB 专题九 被动语态 动词语态分为两大类:主动语态和被动语态。

主动语态:主语是动作的执行者。

被动语态:主语是动作的承受者。动作的执行者由by连接的短语表示,常译为“被、由”。

对于英语的被动语态,我们可以以下五个方面来掌握。

一、主语与谓语动词的逻辑关系 被动语态表示句子的主语是谓语动词动作的承受者或对象。

如:Computers are widely used in our work and daily life. 电脑在我们的工作和日常生活中广泛应用。(computers就是use的对象或承受者) 二、表示被动语态的形式 (1)基本形式:主语 + be + vt.的过去分词 + (by + sb.) This song is often sung by children at school. 这首歌经常在学校被孩子们唱。

常见被动语态的时态:
①一般现在时:am/is/are+ vt.的过去分词;

②一般过去时:was / were + vt.的过去分词;

③一般将来时:will / shall / be going to + be + vt.的过去分词;

④现在完成时:have / has + been + vt.的过去分词;

⑤过去完成时:had + been + vt.的过去分词;

⑥现在进行时:am/is/are + being + vt.的过去分词;

⑦过去进行时:was / were + being + vt.的过去分词 ⑧过去将来时:would + be + vt.的过去分词 注意:被动语态不用于将来进行时及完成进行时。

(2)其他形式:
(选学) ①主语 + be + vt. 的过去分词 + (by +. sb.)+宾语/ 介词 + 宾语 A. 主语 + be + vt. 的过去分词 + (by + sb.)+ 宾语/to +宾语 I was shown his gold medal there. 在那里他给我看了他的金牌。

His gold medal was shown to me. 他的金牌给我看了。

能用于这一句型的常见动词有bring,give,hand,lend,offer,pass,post,send,show,teach,tell,throw,write等。

B. 主语 + be + vt. 的过去分词 + (by + sb.)+ 宾语 /for +宾语 I was bought a new dictionary (by my father). 我父亲给我买了一本新字典。

A new dictionary was bought for me (by my father). 我父亲给我买了一本新字典。

能用于这一句型的常见动词有buy,call,cook,do,get,make,save等。

②主语 + be + vt. 的过去分词 + (by + sb.)+ 主语的补足语 Jim was made chairman at the meeting. Jim在会上被推选为主席。

Li Lei was seen to break the glass this moming. 李雷今天上午被人看到打碎了那块玻璃。

能用于这一句型的常见动词有feel,hear,make,observe,see,watch等。特别注意的是,在主动语态中,不定式做宾语的补足语,不定式前面的小品词to必须省略,而在被动语态中,不定式做主语的补足语,不定式的小品词to必须补上。

③主语 +情态动词(can/could/may/might/must/should/ought to)+ be + 动词的过去分词 + (by + sb.) Water can be turned into ice. 水能转变成冰。

Your essay should be rewritten again. 你的论文应该还重新修改一遍。

④主语 +be + 短语动词的过去分词 + (by + sb.) His words should be paid much attention to. 应该多注意他的话。

The children in China are taken good care of now. 现在中国的孩子被照料得很好。

注意:动词后面的介词或副词不能省略。

⑤形式主语(It) +be + vt.的过去分词 +主语从句 It is reported that our team has won the game again. 据报道,我们队又赢了比赛。

能用于这一句型的常见动词有believe,expect,know,report,say,suppose,think等。这一句型也可变为:
主语 + be + vt. 的过去分词+不定式短语 The Mars is believed to have no life on it. 火星被确认无生命迹象。

Our team is reported to have won the game again. 据报道,我们队又赢了比赛。

三、被动语态的用法 被动语态往往表示一种客观的事实,有时语气比较生硬,没有商量的余地,从而令人难以接受,因此,切不可随便使用。在能用主动语态表示时,尽量使用主动语态,只有在下面的情况中才使用被动语态。

①说不出动作的执行者或没有必要说出动作的执行者;

如:The classroom had been cleaned when I got there. 当我到达教室的时候,教室已经被人打扫过了。

(教室究竟是谁打扫的,说话者并不知道) ②为了突出或强调动作的承受者或对象;
如:Homework must be finished before school is over. 作业必须在放学之前做完。(强调 Homework) ③为了修辞的需要,使句子间的联系更紧密。如: I have a new motorbike. It was given to me by my father yesterday as my birthday present. 我有一台新摩托车。它是昨天我父亲买给我作为生日礼物的。(显然,It指代 the new bike就与上文的a new motorbike紧密相连) 四、不能使用被动语态的情况 (1)不及物动词没有被动形式。特别要注意汉语中带名词或代词做宾语的动词,如belong,die,happen,occur,take place等不及物动词。

如:A terrible traffic accident happened on the road yesterday. (昨天在公路上发生了一起可怕的交通事故。)就不能改写为:A terrible traffic accident is happened on the road yesterday. (2)一些静态的及物动词也不能用于被动语态。如agree with,fit,have,hold,own,suit等。

如:I don’t agree with Jack. (我不同意Jack的观点。)就不能改写为:Jack isn ' t agreed with. 五、主动形式表被动意义如:The pen writes well. 这支笔很好写。

The food tastes good. 这些食物尝起来味道很好。

His house is comfortable to live in. 他的房子住起来很舒服。

实战演练(2×50) 计分: 1._____ a new library _____ in our school last year? A. Did ; build B. Was ; built C. Is; built 2.An accident ____ on this road last week. A. was happened B. has happened C.happened 3. --- This kind of rice tastes nice. Do you know where it is grown? --- Yes, it _______ in Southeast China. A. was grew B. is grown C. is growing 4.So far, the moon ____ by man already. A. is visited B. has been visited C. was visited 5.A talk on Chinese history _____ in the school hall next week. A. is given B. has been given C. will be given 6.A lot of things ____ by people to save the little girl now. A. are doing B. are being done C. will be done 7.The doctor _____ for yet. A. isn't sent B. wasn't sent C. hasn't been sent 8. ---When ___ this kind of computer ______? ---Last year. A. was; made B. did; make C .are; made 9.Who _____ this book _____? A. did; write B. was; written by C. is; written 10.Mary ____ show me her new dictionary. A. has asked to B. was asked to C. is asked 11.A story _____ by Granny yesterday. A. was told to us B. was told us C. is told us 12.The monkey was seen _____ off the tree. A. jumped B. jumps C. to jump 13.Older people ____ well. A. must be looked after B. looks after C. must look after 14.Our teacher ______ carefully. A. should be listened B. should be listened to C. are listened 15. In some part of the world, tea _______ with milk and sugar. A. is served B. serves C. served 16. --- Did you win the basketball game? --- Bad luck. Our team _______ in the final one. A. won B. was won C. was beaten 17. Do you think that the bridge ______ in a year? A. would be completed B. will be completed C. is completed 18. Great changes _______ in China since 1949. A. have taken place B. have been taken place C. took place 19. ---Why does Ling Ling look so unhappy? ---She has _______ by her classmates. A. laughed B. been laughed C. been laughed at 20. Doctors _______ in every part of the world. A. need B. are needing C. are needed 21. This painting _______ to a museum in New York in 1977. A. sells B. sold C. was sold 22. The television _______. It doesn’t work now. A. must repair B. must be repaired C. has repaired 23. --- Do you think that the classroom _______ every day? --- Yes, I think so. A. should clean B. should be cleaning C. should be cleaned 24. I believe that those mountains _______ with trees in a few years’ time. A. are covered B. will be covered C. will cover 25. It is said that about 400 cars _______ in the factory next month. A. will produce B. are produced C. will be produced 26. I wasn’t at home yesterday. I _______ to help with the harvest on the farm. A. was asked B.was asking C. asked 27. ---Are you free this afternoon? ---No. I’ll have an English composition _______ this afternoon. A. to write B. wrote C. to be written 28. --- Where are the boys? --- Oh, they _______ basketball on the playground just now. A. were seen play B. were seen to play C. had seen play 29. --- Can you sing this English song? --- Of course I can. It _______ often _______ by children. A. is; sang B.was ; sang C.is ; sung 30. ---What did Miss Zhang say to you just now? ---She said that all the books should ___ to the library on time. A. are returned B. return C. be returned 31. When and where to build the new factory _______ yet. A. is not decided B. have not been decided C. has not been decided 32. Paul doesn’t have to be made _______. He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned 33. A football match _______ in our school next Monday. A. will hold B. will be held C. is going to hold 34. ----What’s happened to Joe? ---- ________ to a hospital. A. He’s taken B. He’s been taken C. He’ll be taken 35.--- Did you go to the party yesterday? ---- No, I ________. A. wasn’t invited B. was invited C. didn’t invite 36. Today the forests have almost gone. People must ______ down too many trees. A. stop from cutting B. stop to cut C. be stopped from cutting 37 .He was seen ________ something from the shop. A. steal B. to steal C. to be stolen 38. One of the club activties ________ by Mr Smith. A. is holding B. are held C. is held 39. This kind of medicine ________ in a dry and cool place. A. must keep B. kept C. must be kept 40. The dog _________ an hour ago. A.died B.has died C.has been dead 41. ---Mary, you ____ on the phone. --- Thank you, Mom. A. are wanted B. will be wanted C. have wanted 42. This book ________ well in the shop.   A. sells B. is selling C. is sold 43.The windows__________ after school is over. A.usually closed B.are usually closed C.are usually closing 44.They sat at the table until all the food __________ . A.was eating B.was eaten C.were eaten 45.I don’t know the restaurant, but it ___________to be quite a good one. A.is said B.is told C.is spoken 46. The old man was quite weak after the accident, so he _______. A. must be taken care B. must take care of C. must be looked after 47. ----I feel very happy that I __________ to be the host. ----Congratulations. A. choose B. am chsoen C. was chosen 48.Trees and grass __________ every year to protect our environment. A.is planted B.are planted C.have planted 49.English _________in Canada, Australia and New Zealand as well as America. A.speaks B.is speaking C.is spoken 50. ---Look at the sign on the wall. --- Oh, parking _______ here. A. doesn’t allow B.isn’t allowed C. wasn’t allowed 参考答案 1-5BCBBC 6-10BCABB 11-15ACABA 16-20CBACC 21-25CBCBC 26-30AABCC 31-35CBBBA 36-40CBCCA 41-45AABBA 46-50CCBCB 专题十 非谓语动词 一、 动词不定式 1、 构成:动词不定式基本形式为:
to+动词原形。有些动词不定式不带to。

否定形式为:not (to)+动词原形。

2、功能及用法:
(1)、用作主语    多数情况用it作形式主语,把真正的主语——动词不定式置于句末,特别是不定式短语较长时。动词不定式作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。如:
For him, to talk with his mother is necessary.=It is necessary for him to talk with his mother. (2)、用作表语 动词不定式作表语,常说明主语的内容、性质、特征。常可转换成主语。如:  The best way to improve your English is to join an English club.=To join an English club is the best way to improve your English. (3)、用作宾语   ★可以接带to的动词不定式作宾语的动词主要有:要求选择同意(ask, choose, agree),期望决定学习(expect, hope, decide, learn),宁可拒绝假装知道(prefer, refuse, pretend, know),希望想要愿意(wish, want/need, would like / love)等。如:
  We decided to talk to some students.   He prefers to eat white bread and rice.   ★动词decide, know, learn, show, teach, tell...后可用“疑问词+to的不定式短语”作宾语,但why后面的不定式不带to。如:
  Could you please tell me where to park my car?   ★动词feel, find, make, think等后面,可以用it作形式宾语代替真正的宾语—动词不定式,句子结构是sb. feel / find / make / ...+ it+adj. / n.+to do...。如:
  I find it difficult to remember everything.   ★既可接动词不定式又可接v-ing形式作宾语,意思差别不太大的动词有begin, start, like, love等。如:
  Then I started to watch English-language TV.   I like to eat vegetables.   ★后接动词不定式或v-ing形式作宾语,意思差别较大的动词有forget, remember等。后接不定式作宾语,表动作尚未发生;
后接ving形式作宾语,表动作已经发生。stop to do停下来做另外一件事;
stop doing停止做、不做当前这件事。try to do尽力做,try doing试试看;
go on to do接着做另外的事,go on doing继续做原来的事。如:
  When I left home, I had forgotten to bring it with me.   I stopped using them last year. (4)、用作定语   ★句子的主语或宾语是动词不定式的逻辑主语,不定式与其所修饰的名词、代词等存在逻辑的动宾关系时,用动词不定式的主动式。如:
  I have so much homework to do today.   It’s a good place to visit. ★作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,且与所修饰的词之间有动宾关系,要在不定式后加适当的介词。如:
I need a room to live in. (5)、用作补语   ★在主、被动语态句里用带to的动词不定式作补语的动词主要有:要求允许提议(ask, allow, advise),期望邀请鼓励(expect, suppose, invite, encourage),教导告诉想要(teach, tell, want),等待希望愿意(wait for, wish, would like / love)。如:
  She asked me not to speak Chinese in English class.   ★下列动词,多数动词是感官动词和使役动词,当动词不定式作补语时,在主动语态句里不带to,被动语态句里要将省略的to补上。包括四“看”:look at, observe, see, watch,三“让”:have, let, make,二“听”:hear, listen to,一“感觉”:feel,一“注意”:notice。如:
  This picture makes me feel tense!   I was made to say sorry to him.   ★help后接动词不定式作补语,to可带可不带。如:
  Using email English helps you write quickly.   ★be said, be sure, happen, seem等后面可以接带to的动词不定式作主语的补语。如:
  He doesn’t seem to have many friends.   Be sure not to miss them if they come to a city near you. (6)、用作状语, 其逻辑主语要和句子的主语一致。

  ★目的状语,置于句首或句末,置于句首时常表示强调。如:
  A group of young people came here to(in order to) discuss this question.   ★原因状语,多见于“sb.+be+adj.+to do...”结构句中。如:
I’m sorry to trouble you. I’m glad to see you.   ★结果状语,多见于“too...to”,“enough to...”结构句中。如:
  Then I’m too tired to do well. What should I do?   The room needs to be big enough for three people to live in.   ★独立动词不定式多用作插入语,表示说话人的心理状态或对事情的看法。如:
  To be honest, I only eat food that tastes good.   To begin with, she spoke too quickly, and I couldn’t understand every word. (7)、动词不定式的复合结构 动词不定式的复合结构是“for / of sb. to do sth.”,for / of引出不定式动作的逻辑主语。这种结构在句子中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语等。

不定式复合结构作主语时,需注意:
   It’s + 形容词 + for / of + sb + to do sth. for前面的形容词是dangerous, difficult, easy, hard, heavy, important, interesting, necessary等,一般说明不定式动作的特性,不说明人的特性。如:  It’s dangerous for children to swim in the river. 当上面的形容词指的是sb的性质时,用介词of。这些形容词往往修饰人:careful, clever, foolish, good, kind, nice, wise,bad, polite, careless 如:It’s very nice of you to say so. (8)、带疑问词的不定式短语   动词不定式前面可以带疑问代词what, which, who或疑问副词how, when, where, why等。这种结构起名词的作用,在句子里用作宾语、主语、表语等,或者单独使用。如:
  I don’t know what to do next.   Where to go is not decided yet.   单独使用时相当于一个特殊疑问句,在复合句中则可变为一个从句。

  What to do next? =What will we / you do next?   Can you tell me how to do that?=Can you tell me how I should do that? (9)、动词不定式的否定式   不定式的否定式是not to do...,不带to的不定式的否定式是not do...如:
Sometimes they decide not to talk to each other. (10)常见的与不定式连用的词组和句型。

Why not do…?=Why don’t you do …? had better (not) do … would rather do … prefer to do rather than do Could/Would/Will you please…? It takes sb +时间/金钱+ to do sth. It’ s time to do… It’ s one’s turn to… 如:
  Why not take a holiday?    It takes me an hour to walk there. 二、 动名词 1、构成:
动词原形+ing 2、功能及用法:
动名词除具有动词的性质外,还具有名词的性质。动名词在句中可用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、宾语补足语等,但不能用作谓语。

(1).用作主语, 谓语动词用单数。如:
Eating too much is bad for your health. 注意:动名词作主语经常采用it作形式主语的句型。

It’s no use crying. 哭没有什么用处。

(2).用作表语,可转换成主语。如:
Her favorite sport is skating. =Skating is her favorite sport. 注意:不定式和动名词均可用作主语和表语,区别是:动名词多指笼统的、抽象的概念,而不定式则多指具体的、一次性的动作。

(3).用作宾语,放在动词或介词之后。如:
She likes singing and dancing. Thank you for helping us. (4).用作定语,位于所修饰词之前,表示所修饰的词的用途、所属关系等。如:
This is our reading room. Betty won the first prize in the singing competition. ★英语中,某些动词(或形容词)只能与ing形式即动名词连用。

一直忙于练习,(keep, be busy,practice,) 想要继续完成,(feel like, keep on, finish,) 习惯期待花费,(be used to, look forward to, spend) 介意考虑放弃,(mind, consider, give up) 禁不住麻烦怎么样(can’t help, have trouble/problems (in), what/how about) 建议喜欢开心 (suggest , enjoy, have fun ) ★还有一些结构:
do+some+doing 如:
do some cooking/ shopping / cleaning/ washing/ reading/ go+doing 如:
go shopping/ fishing / swimming/ skating/ boating/ hiking / sightseeing no use (good) doing sth 做……没用 如:
It’s no good complaining. without+dong sth 没有做…… 如:. She kept sitting there without talking to anybody. no+dong …禁止,不准 如:No parking! pay attention to doing sth 注意做某事 如:
You must pay attention to protecting him。

put one’s effort into doing sth 全力以赴做某事 如:If you put your effort into learning English, you will improve it. 三、 分词 考点聚焦 1、构成:英语中的分词有两种:现在分词和过去分词。及物动词的现在分词由“动词+ing”构成,表示正在进行和主动意义。过去分词基本形式是“动词+ed”,表示已经完成和被动意义,但也有不规则形式。

2、功能及用法 (1).作定语   分词可用来修饰名词或代词,并和所修饰的词在逻辑上有主谓关系。

前置定语 如:  What exciting news it is! 后置定语 如:
  Do you know the girl sitting under the tree? There comes a girl dressed in red. (2).作表语   分词作表语,相当于形容词。现在分词作表语通常表示主语所具有的性质或特征,含有“令人……的”意思。过去分词作表语多表示主语所处的情形或状态,含有“某人感到……的”意思。如:
  The story was very interesting .   I was interested in the movie. (3).作补语    现在分词作宾语补足语,宾语和现在分词(主动意义)有逻辑上的主谓关系。过去分词作补足语,宾语和过去分词 (被动意义)有逻辑上的动宾关系。

  分词通常用在see,hear, watch,notice,feel,find等感官动词或have,get,make等使役动词的宾语之后,补充说明宾语的动作或状态。过去分词在动词have,get之后作宾语补足语时,常常表示这动作不是由主语完成的,而是由别人完成的。如:
  I found the boy crying in the corner. (主谓关系,正在进行)   I want to have my hair cut/ have my bike repaired/ get my ears pierced. (被动)   ★现在分词和不定式作宾语补足语在意义上有所不同。现在分词作宾语补足语,表示动作正在进行,即动作处在发生过程中,还没有结束;
而不定式作宾语补足语表示经常性的动作或动作的全过程。如:
  I saw him going out. (分词,正在发生) I see him go out every day.  (不定式,经常性动作) I heard him knock three times.是的,我听见他敲了三下。(不定式,全过程) (4).作状语,表时间、原因、伴随、结果、让步、方式等。

  现在分词作状语,一般句子主语就是分词的主语。

  Seeing the teacher entering the room,the students stood up.(= When the students saw the teacher entering the room,they stood up.)(时间状语,主动)   Not knowing what to do about it,I asked my teacher for advice.(原因状语,主动)    The teaher came in, followed by his students.(伴随状语,被动) 实战演练(2×50) 计分: 1.—What about going to the net bar this weekend? —I’d love to, but my mother often lets me_____ there. A. to go B.not to go C. not go 2.Tom likes cars. He enjoys _____model cars of all kinds. A. collecting B. to collect C. collected 3. The hot weather made the students always _______ drink water . A .to want to B. want to C. wanted 4. Jim spent three years (in )_____Chinese before he came to China. A. learned B. to learn C. learning 5. My mother told me _______ to strangers. A. not talk B. not to talk C. not talking 6. I’ll give a talk tomorrow. I’m thinking about_______. A. what to say B. how to say C. what can I say 7. Before 2012 we will finish _______ the Disneyland in Shanghai. A. build B. building C. to build 8. We have worked for three hours. Now let’s stop _______a rest. A. have B. having C. to have 9. —Bob speaks Chinese quite well. —Yes, so he does. He practices ______Chinese every day. A. speaking B. to speak C. speaks 10. —Is Wei Fang good at _______? Yes, she is. We often hear her ______in the next room. A. sing; to sing B. to sing; sings C. singing; sing 11. —Look! This sweater is beautiful. —_______? A. Why not trying it on B. Why not try it on C. Why don’t try it on 12. On her way home, Lucy saw the thief ______in a shop. She stopped_______110 at once. A. standing; calling B. stand; to call C. standing; to call 13. In recent years, many children are made ______what they are not_____. A. to do; interested in B. do; interested C. do; interested in 14.The box is too heavy for me____. A. carrying B. to carry C. carry 15. —Would you like some juice? —Thanks.______, but I have drunk a lot of tea. A. drinking; I’d love B. to drink; I’d love to C. drink; I’d love 16. The young man is _______carry that heavy bag. A. strong enough to B. enough strong to C. not strong enough 17.—Mum, I’m hungry. —What about ______ to McDonald’s______ fried chicken? A. go; eating B. to go; to eat C. going; to eat 18. Thank you for ____ us so well. A. to teach B. teaches C. teaching 19. It's very hot here. Would you mind ____ the window? A. to open B. opening C. open 20. When they heard the bad news, they couldn't help ____. A. cry B. crying C. to cry 21. I'm afraid they would not allow him ________ here. A. to smoke B. smoking C. smoke 22. The first thing I want to do is __________. A. visit to him B. to visit him C. visiting him 23. This company was the first ____ computers in the world. A. producing B. to produce C. having produced 24. We’ sorry _________ hear the bad news. A. hear B. hearing C. to hear 25. Last week I met my old friend Lee but I forgot ______ him for his telephone number. A. ask B. asking C. to ask 26. It’s polite for students _______ hello to teachers. A. to say B. saying C. says 27. When people want to relax themselves, they prefer _________ TV or listen to music rather than __________ newspaper. A. watching; reading B. to watch; read C. watching; read 28. ________ is good for your study. A. Read B. Reading C. Reads 29. I ___________the bus to school, but now I walk to school. A. am used to take B. used to take C. am used to taking 30. Smile helps him ________ many friends. A. makes B. make C. making 31.We’re looking forward __________ a long vacation. A. to have B. to having C. having 32. You’d better _______ to the cinema by car. A. not to go B. not go C. don’t go 33. He decided _________ English every day. A. to practice B. practice C. practicing 34. It’s very nice ________ photos for me. A. of you to take B. for you to take C. for you taking 35. The doctor was busy ____________ the boy at that time. A. talk B. talking to C. to talk to 36. I’m thirsty. Will you get me something ____? A. drink B. to drink C. eat 37. We had great fun ________ on the beaches. A. to play B. playing C. played 38. It’s spring now. It’s time _____________ trees. A. for plant B. to plant C. plant 39. Don’t keep me _______ for a long time. A. wait B. waiting C. to wait 40. You’d better have your hair _____ at once.   A. cut            B. cutting          C to cut            41. We should do as much as we can _______ water. A. for saving       B. to save      C. save       42. Would you please _______ any noise? The baby has just fallen asleep. A. make       B. not to make   C. not make 43. --- Would you please try _______ late again?       --- Sorry, I won’t be late again.  A. not to be             B. to be not           C. not being                44. I find _______ him all about it. A. necessary to tell             B. that necessary to            C. it necessary to tell 45. How long does it take you _______ your homework every evening? A. finish doing         B. finishing to do           C. to finish doing     46. I need a friend _________ . A. practice English B. to practice English C. to practice English with 47. My hobby is ________ basketball. A. play B. playing C. plays 48. He doesn’t give up _________ hard although his English is not good. A. to work B. work C. working 49. He is _________ at the news. A. surprise B. surprised C. surprising 50. I know a boy ________ Tom. A. call B. calling C. called 参考答案:
1-5 C A B C B 6-10 A B C A C 11-15 B C A B B 16-20 A C C B B 21-25 A B B C C 26-30 A B B B B 31-35 B B A A B 35-40 B B B B A 41-45 B C A C C 46-50 C B C B C 专题十一 简单句、并列句 简单句 (一)基本概念 只包含一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)的句子,称作简单句。在简单句中主语和谓语是句子的主干,是句子的核心。除了主语和谓语外,简单句中还可以有宾语、表语、补语、状语、定语等。

(二)句型结构 简单句可归纳为五个基本句型。

1.主语+谓语  这种句型简称为主谓结构,其谓语一般都是不及物动词,后面可以有其他成分修饰。

如:Things change. He smiles happily. 2.主语+连系动词+表语  这种句型称为主系表结构。

如:Mr. Smith is an artist.   The hamburger tastes good. 注:表语位于系动词之后。常由名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式、动词的-ing、从句来充当。

常见系动词有:
(1)表状态系动词---be 如:     He is a teacher.   He is ill. (2)持续系动词--用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,常见有keep, remain, stay,如:
  He always kept silent。   (3)表像系动词--用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look,如:
  He looks tired.   He seems (to be) very sad. (4)感官系动词---感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste,如:
  This kind of cloth feels very soft. That sounds interesting.   This flower smells very sweet. It tastes delicious. (5)变化系动词--这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come,等.。如:
   He became mad after that. I get tired.    She grew tall。

3. 主语+谓语+宾语 谓语一般多是及物动词。宾语有两种 :间接宾语和直接宾语    如:We like music. I had eggs for breakfast. 4.主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 一般间接宾语位于直接宾语的前面,有时它们也可交换位置,这是需要在间接宾语的前面加上介词to 或for 。

如:He gave his sister the book.=He gave the book to his sister. 常见双宾结构:
可转换成带to结构的有:
bring sb. sth (bring sth to sb). give sb. sth (give sth to sb.) lend sb. sth (lend sth to sb) pass sb sth (pass sth to sb) return sb. sth (return sth to sb) send sb sth (send sth to sb) show sb sth (show sth. to sb.) tell sb sth (tell sth to sb ) write sb sth (write sth to sb ) 可转换成带for结构的有:
buy sb sth (buy sth for sb ) do sb sth (do sth for sb ) get sb sth (get sth for sb ) make sb. sth (make sth for sb) pay sb. sth (pay sth for sb) sing sb sth (sing sth for sb ) 5.主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语+宾补 宾语补足语常由形容词、名词、数词、介词短语、不带to的不定式或v+ing、V+ed等充当。

如:I found the book easy.(形容词easy作补语)    I'll let him go.(不定式go用作补语) (三) There be句型 1、结构:There be句型是一种主语后置的倒装句,常表示某处有某人或某物。

具体结构为:There be+人/物+其他+(地点)。

2、用法:
(1)、There be句型中动词be单复数形式要跟there be之后的主语保持一致。并且要根据就近一致原则来变换be 的单复数形式。

如:There is a desk and two chairs in the room. There are two chairs and a desk in the room. (2)、There be句型中的be 有各种时态,有时还会在be前插入情态动词。

如:
There is going to be a meeting tonight. There must be some flowers in the box. (3)、There be句型可换成There come / go,以引起注意,加强语气。

如:There comes the bus. (4)、 There be句型的否定句和疑问句变化主要是be之后加not和be提到there之前。

如:There isn’t any rain these days. Are there any people in the room? 并列句 (一) 基本概念及构成 两个或两个以上的简单句用and, but, or, so等并列连词连在一起构成的句子,叫做并列句,其基本结构是“简单句+并列连词+简单句”。

  如: I like action movies but I don't like thrillers.   Hurry up,or you'll be late. (二)连词用法 1、表并列关系的连词有and,both...and…两者都, as well as还有, not only...but (also)不但…而且…, neither...nor既不…也不…等。

如:Work hard, and you’ll pass the exam. She not only sings but also dances. 2、表转折关系的有but, however然而,while然而,still, yet然而等。

如:The film is not perfect, however, it's good. I like action movies but I don't like thrillers. I like tea while she likes coffee.(表对比)   3、表选择关系的有or, either...or...或者…或者…, not...but...不是…而是…等。

如:Hurry up, or you’ll be late. Either Tom or his sisters are coming.   4、表因果关系的有for因为, so所以, because等。

如:I'd better take an umbrella, for it is going to rain. The manager was ill so she didn’t go to work. (三)特殊的并列句 1. 祈使句 + and +一般将来时的句子 如:Work hard, and you’ll pass the exam. 2. 祈使句 + or + 一般将来时的句子 如:Hurry up, or you’ll be late. 实战演练(2×50) 计分: 1.---____ is her daughter? ---The girl on the right wearing blue jeans. A. Who B. What C. Which 2. ______ does your mother do? She is a worker. A. Who B. how C. What 3. ---Excuse me. _____do you say “autumn” in American English? ---It’s “fall”. A. How B. When C. Why 4. --___ do I take the medicine, Mr. Wang?--Twice a day after meals. A. How long B. How many C. How often 5. Eric’s never seen a three-D movie at the cinema, _____? A. hasn’t he B. has he C. is he 6. --I’m sorry I can’t lend you the e-dictionary. --_____? Didn’t you promise me? A. What B. How C. When 7. We bought her a birthday present, _____ she liked it very much. A. or B. and C. but 8. — Didn’t you give gifts to your father on Father’s Day?  — Oh, not only my father, _____ my grandpa got red gifts. A. or B. and C. but 9. — Would you like to go to the concert with me?  — I’d love to, _____ I can’t. I have a lot of homework to do. A. or B. but C. and 10. _____ Lily _____ Lucy may go with you because one of them must stay at home. A. Not only; but also   B. Neither; nor   C. Either; or 11. None of the shoes in the shops are the right size. They are _____ too big _____ too small. A. both; and B. neither; nor C. either; or 12. “Are you going to eat here ____ take it away?” asked the waiter. A. and B. so C. or 13. Tom is cleaning the house _____ some of his friends are coming for dinner. A. because B. but C. so 14. There is a lot of traffic in this city, _____ look both ways before crossing the street. A. so B. and C. for 15. Study hard, _____ you are sure to have a good result in the exam. A. or B. and C. for 16. Be quick, _____ we’ll be late for class. A. or B. and C. but 17. Come a little earlier next time, _____ you’ll miss the best part of the TV play. A. and B. but C. or 18. There ______ ice on the road last week. A. was B. were C. are 19. There ______ a football match on the playground this afternoon. A. will have B. is going to have C. is going to be 20. He ________say _________. A. didn’t; anything B. don’t; something C. doesn’t; something 21. --- Would you like to come to the party tonight? ---Yes, _________. A. I would be B. I do C. I’d like to 22. ---The Changjiang River isn’t the longest river in China, is it? ---___________. A. Yes, it is. B. No, it isn’t. C. No, it is. 23. ---________ is a kilo of oranges? ---10 yuan a kilo. A. How many B. How much C. How heavy 24. ---Does he like music? ---__________. A. Yes, he likes. B. Yes, he do. C. Yes, he does. 25. ___________ is the population of China? A. How much B. What C. How many 26. ---_________ do you think of the movie? ---Great! A. How B. What C. Why 27. ---_______ you _______ TV now? ---No, you can turn it off. A. Did; watch B. Do; watch C. Are; watching 28. --_______ are you going this summer vacation? --To Beijing! A. Where B. How C. Why 29. ---_______________? ---He is tall. A. How is he B. What does he like C. What does he look like 30. ---_______ do you study for a test? ---By working with a group. A. What B. How C. Where 31. ---Must I come to the office at three o’clock this afternoon? ---No, you ________. A. mustn’t B. can’t C. needn’t 32. They are _______ young ______ carry the box onto the table. A. enough; to B. so; that C. too; to 33. They ______lunch at home every day. A. have not B. didn’t have C. don’t have 34. We always keep our classroom clean, so we _______ clean it every day. A. don’t have B. don’t need C. don’t have to 35. Yesterday he ________ some reading at home. A. does B. didn’t C. didn’t do 36. ---Have you seen the film? ---No, __________. A. I don’t B. I haven’t C. I didn’t 37.--- Can you speak English? ---Yes, _________. A. we can’t B. we can C. we don’t 38. ---Are there any trees in the park? ---Yes, __________. A. they are B. there is C. there are 39. __________ I come in? A. May B. Will C. Would 40. _______the old man get up early every morning? A. Is B. Has C. Does 41.--- _______ do you like the new play? --- It’s good and interesting. A. How B. What C. Which 42. ---________ is your telephone number? ---865 2738. A. How much B. How many C. What 43. Mrs Black doesn’t like these people,__________? A. does she B. do she C. is she 44.There is little milk in the fridge,_________? A. isn’t there B. are they C. is there 45. Open the window,________? A. will you B. shall we C. don’t you 46. ---Does your brother like the red tie or the black tie? ---____________. A. Yes, he does B. No, he doesn’t C. The red tie 47. ---It’s a secret between us. Don’t tell anybody else. ---_________. A. I do B. I don’t C. I won’t 48. _______ good idea it is! A. What an B. How C. What a 49. ________ quickly he rides his bicycle! A. What B. How C. What a 50. ---The skirt looks _______. ---Thank you! A.nice B. well C. old 参考答案:
1—5 A C A C B 6---10 A B C B C 11—15 C C A A B 16—20 A C A C A 21—25 C A B C B 26—30 B C A C B 31—35 C C C C C 36—40 B B C A C 41—45 A C A C A 46—50 C C C B A 专题十二 祈使句、感叹句 一、祈使句 (一)、祈使句的结构及用法 祈使句表请求、命令、叮嘱、邀请、劝告等。主语通常被省略,谓语动词用原形,句末用感叹号或句点。

1. 肯定的祈使句 (1)动词原形+其他 如:
Stand up, please. = Please stand up. 请起立。

但有时会在句首加上主语或加呼语,以便指明是向谁提出请求或发出命令。呼语常与句子隔开,动词仍然用原形。

如:
Mary, clean the windows!And you boys,wash the floor! (2)Be + adj. 如:Be careful! = Look out! = Take care! (3)Let's + 动词原形 如:Let’s go to school together. 2. 否定的祈使句 (1) Don't + 动词原形 如:
Don't stand up. Don't be careless. Don't let them play with fire. (2) Let's ( let sb ) + not + 动词原形 如:
Let's not say anything about it. 3.祈使句的反意疑问句 (1) 肯定祈使句的反意疑问句反问部分用will you 或won't you。

如:
Please open the door, will/ won’t you? (2) 否定祈使句的反意疑问句反问部分只用will you。

如:
Don't be late again, will you? (3) 以let's开头的祈使句反意疑问句反问部分用shall we,let us开头的祈使句的反意疑问句的反问部分应为will you或won't you. 如:Let us stay here, will/ won't you? Let's turn on the TV, shall we?  4. 特殊形式的祈使句。祈使句除用谓语动词表示外,还可用名词、副词、动词短语等表示。如:Help! Patience! Quickly! Hands up! 5. 祈使句的强调形式。有时为了加强语气,可以再动词前加上do,表示“务必,一定”。

如:Do be careful! (二)、祈使句用于两个重要句型中 1.“祈使句+and+表结果的陈述句”用来叙述肯定的条件。

2.“祈使句+or(else)+表结果的陈述句”用来叙述否定的条件,or(else)表示“否则;
要不然”。

如:Hurry up , and you’ll catch the train. (=If you hurry up,you’ll catch the train.) Hurry up,or you’ll miss the train.(=If you don’t hurry up,you’ll miss the train.) 二、感叹句 (一)感叹句的结构及用法 感叹句是抒发强烈感情的句子,如欢乐、兴奋、惊奇、愤怒、悲伤等,书面语中句末用感叹号。常由what或者how引导,都表示“多么”。

1、 what引导的感叹句 what修饰名词或名词短语,有以下两种形式:
  (1)What+a(an)+(形容词)+单数可数名词+(主语+谓语)! 如:
What a nice girl (she is)! What an interesting movie(it is)! (2)What+(形容词)+可数名词复数或不可数名词+(主语+谓语)! 如:What kind women they are!    What nice music/bad weather/good news(it is)! 2、how引导的感叹句 how用来修饰形容词、副词或动词。其结构有:
(1)How+形容词(副词)+主语+谓语!    如:How hard the workers work!    How clever the girl is!    注意:当how修饰动词时,动词不跟着感叹词提到主语之前。

如:How fast the runner runs! (2)How +形容词+ a +名词+ 主语+谓语。

如:How clever a boy he is! (二)特殊形式的感叹句 1、在口语中常用省略句,有时只用一个词或词组。

如:Great ! How cold ! Look out! What a fool! What a pity! My goodness! 2、Here/There开头的感叹句:
(1).Here/There+主语(代词)+谓语 如:Here he comes! (2).Here/There+谓语+主语(名词) 如:Here comes the bus! 实战演练(2×50) 计分: 1. ___ food you've cooked! A. How a nice  B. What a nice  C. What nice 2. ___terrible weather we are having these days!  A. What  B. What a   C. How   3. --- __ ___ I had! --- You really had a lot. A. What a great time  B. What great time   C. How great time 4. __________ he runs! A. How fast B. What fast C. What a fast 5. The TV is too loud. Please________. A. turn it down B. to turn it down C. turning down it 6. _______ late again, Bill! A. Don't B. Don't be C. Not be 7. _______ cross the road until the traffic lights turn green. A. Not B. Doesn't C. Don't 8. Please help me carry it, ___ ___? A. will I B. will you C. shall we 9. Don't make so much noise, ____ __? A. will you B. won't you C. shall we 10. Kate, _______ your homework here tomorrow. A. brings B. bring C. bringing 11. ________ me the truth, or I'll be angry. A. Telling B. To tell C. Tell 12. ---________ nice girl Alice is! ---Yes, she is always ready to help others. A. What a B. How C. What 13. ________ exciting it was to see the 2010 EXPO! A. What B. What an C. How 14. __________ the lights when you leave a room. A. Turn off B. Turning off C. To turn off 15. _______ tall the girl is! She is sure to become a good basketball player. A. How B. What a C. What 16. ---Try not to be late for school next time. ---Sure, I ________. A. don’t B. won’t C. haven’t 17. ___ ____she dances! A. How good B. How well C. What well 18. _ _ __ bright girls they are! A. What B. What a C. How 19. __ __ hard work it is! A. How B. What C. What a 20. Please _ ___, they’re having a meeting. A. not be so noisy B. be quite C. no speaking 21. ___ _ to meet me at the station. I’ll be waiting there. A. Not forget B. Forget not C Don’t forget 22. Lucy, __ __ the door or someone will come in. A. close B. closes C. closing 23. ___________play soccer in the streets. It’s too dangerous. A. Let’s B. Don’t C. Do 24. __ __ friendly he is! A. What B. How C. What a 25. It’s a fine day. Let’s go fishing, ___ _? A. won’t we B. will you C. shall we 26. A sign with the words“__ __” is often found in a bus. A. No parking B. No smoking C. Turn Left 27.___ __his father works! A. How careful B. How carefully C. What careful 28. ____ __heavy snow! A. What a B. What C. How 29. _______the mooncakes are! A. How delicious B. What delicious C. What a delicious 30. Cindy, ________ to be here at 8 o’clock. A. is sure that B. will be sure C. be sure 31. Let us do it at once, ________ ? A. shall we B will you C do we 32. Please ________ look outside. Look at the blackboard. A . not B. don’t C. aren’t 33. ______ tell a lie. A. Not B. No C. Never 34. --You look very tired. ________ stopping to have a rest? -- All right. A. Why not B. How about C. Why don’t 35. They are very tired. Why ________ have a rest? A. not they B. no they C. don’t they 36. ________ your child. We’ll look after him. A. Not to worry about B. Don’t worry about C. No worry about 37. ________ talk any more! It’s time for class! A. Stop B. Don’t C. No 38. _________ exciting news! We’ll have a long vacation after the exam. A. How B. What an C. What 39. __________ speak loudly in the movie theater. A. Can’t B. Don’t C. Not 40. It’s 7:30 now. Let’s ________ work. A. go B. going to C. go to 41. ________ time flies! A. What B. How C. What a 42. _________ a pity! A. How B. What C. How a 43. Let’s ________ loudly in public. A. don’t talk B. no talking C. not talk 44. ________ Mr Right is! A. How kind man B. What kind man C. What a kind man 45. ____ from Beijing to London! A. How long way it is B. What a long way is it C. What a long way it is 46. ____ nice picture you gave me! A. How B. What C. What a 47. _______ well you sing but _______ badly he dances! A. How, how B. What, what C. How, what 48. ____ ___ beautiful your new dress is! A. How B. What C. What a 49. _ ___old bike Li Lei is riding! A. What a B. What an C. How 50. _______I miss you! A. What B. How C. How do 参考答案:
1—5 C A A A A 6---10 B C B A B 11---15 C A C A A 16---20 B B A B B 21---25 C A B B C 26---30 B B B A C 31---35 B B C B C 36---40 B B C B C 41---45 B B C C C 46---50 C A A B B 专题一三 宾语从句 考点聚焦 一、什么是宾语从句 在句中充当宾语的从句叫作宾语从句,宾语从句可作谓语动词的宾语,也可作介词的宾语。

二、宾语从句的引导词 1、 that 无实意,用来引导陈述句的宾语从句,口语中常省略。例如:
She told me that she had been to Hong Kong twice. 她告诉我她去过香港两次。

I know(that)the visitors are from Australia.我知道这些游客来自澳大利亚。

2、if或whether这两个词是“是否”的意思,主要用来引导一般疑问句或选择问句的宾语从句,口语中多用if,不能省略。例如:
He asked me if / whether I had been to Beijing twice. 他问我是否去过北京两次。

She wanted to know whether I would go there or not. 她想知道我是否想去那里。

3、疑问词when ,where,who,how等,这类词通常引导特殊疑问句的宾语从句。例如:
Can you tell me how I can find Mr Wang? 你能告诉我怎样才能找到王先生吗? Please find out who broke the window.请查一下是谁打烂窗户的。

三、宾语从句的语序 凡是从句都必须使用“主语在前,谓语在后”的陈述语序,宾语从句也不例外,也就是说宾语从句的语序必须是“引导词+主语+谓语+其它”。例如:
误:Could you tell me where is the bus station? 正:Could you tell me where the bus station is? 四、宾语从句的时态一致 1、 当主句为一般现在时或一般将来时的时候,从句可以根据需要选择相应的时态,不受主句的影响;
主句为一般过去时,从句要用相应的过去时态。例如:
I want to know what time he ate his breakfast. 我想知道他今天早晨几点钟吃早饭的。

They will tell us that they have been able to look after themselves. 他们将会告诉我们他们已经能照顾自己了。

I asked what my father was doing then. 我问那时我爸爸在干什么? 2、 当宾语从句表述的是客观真理或自然现象是,宾语从句的时态不受主句的时态的影响,仍然用一般现在时。如:
He said the moon moves round the earth. 他说月亮围着地球转。

She asked whether light travels faster than sound. 她问光速是否比声速快。

五、宾语从句的简化 由特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句中的主语与主句的主语或宾语相同时常常可以将宾语从句简化成“特殊疑问词+动词不定式”这种结构。有时候由that引导的宾语从句也可以用动词不定式或者动词的ing形式来简化。如:
Can you tell me how I can get to the post office? = Can you tell me how to get to the post office? She don’t know whether she should go there with them or not. = She don’t know whether to go there with them or not. He can remember that he has climbed the tall tree. = He can remember climbing the tall tree. 六、宾语从句的否定转移及其它 1、当I think/believe/guess等一些看法的词后面所接的宾语从句是否定句时,习惯上否定主句,采用“I don’t think/believe/guess+肯定形式的宾语从句”这种结构来表达。如:
我认为明天她不会来。

误:I think that she won’t come tomorrow. 正:I don’t think that she will come tomorrow. 2、 对I think/believe/guess等动词后面所接的宾语从句进行划线部分提问时,要用“疑问词+do you think /believe/guess+宾语从句的剩余成分?”这种结构来表达。如:
你认为谁将在会上发言? 误:Do you think who will speak at the meeting? 正:Who do you think will speak at the meeting? 实战演练(2×50) 计分: 1—Could you tell me ______? —It’s near the post office. A. where is the bookstore B. the bookstore is where C. where the bookstore is 2.Many people are talking about this disease these days. Could you tell me______? A. how can I keep healthy B. how I can keep healthy C. I can keep healthy 3. —Excuse me .Could you tell me____ I can get to the Space Museum? —Of course. You can take bus No.1. A.where B. how C .if 4—Do you know ______the girl in red is ? —I’m not sure .Maybe a teacher. A. when B. where C. what 5—What did your parents think about your decision? —They always let me do _____I think I should. A. when B. that C. what 6.I hear Tom lives here ,but I’m not sure_____. A. which room he lives in B. which room does he live in C. he live in which room 7.—We can use QQ to communicate with each other online. —Good. Will you please show me_____. A. which to use B. how to use it C. where to use it 8.There are many people downstairs. What do you think____? A. to happen B. happening C. has happened 9.—Guess ______I did yesterday! —I think you went to a party. A. where B. when C. what 10—Do you think ____he should go to the music club or not? —Sorry, I have no idea. A. that B. what C. whether 11.They will be thankful for _____you have done. A. what B. that C. which 12.—Where does Mr.Black live? Can you guess? — Sorry, I can’t guess____. A. where does he live B. where he live in C. where he lives 13.Could you let me know _____ yesterday? A. why did you come late B. why you came late C. why do you come late 14.We are not sure if it ____ tomorrow. If it _____,our sports meeting will be put off. A. will rain; rains B .rains; will rain C. will rain; will rain 15.I want to know _____ the day after tomorrow. A. what he will do B .what will he do C .what he did 16. The girls asked if they ____ some food and drink with them. A. took B. take C. will take 17. Catherine said that she ___ to Guangzhou. A. has never gone B. had never gone C. had never been 18. The students want to know whether they___ dictionary today. A. had B. has C. will have 19. She asked Linda if___ go and get some. A. could she B. she could C. she can 20 Linda said the moon___ round the earth. A. travelled B. has travelled C. travels 21. Can you tell me___ you were born, Betty? A. who B. what C. when 22, I don't know ___ they have passed the exam. A. what B. if C. when 23. I hardly understand. ___ he has told me. A. that B. what C. which 24. She didn't know___ back soon. A. whether he would be B. if would he be C. he will be 25. I don't know _____ he still lives here after so many years. A. whether B. where C. what 26. Do you know _____ they listened to yesterday evening? A. what B. when C. why 27. He asked me _____told me the accident. A. whom B. which C. who 28. They don't know ______their parents are. A. that B. what C. why 29. Please tell me ______last year. A. where does your sister work B where did your sister work C .where your sister worked 30. She asked me if I knew ______. A. whose pen is it B. whose pen it was C. whose pen it is 31. You must remember ________. A. what your mother said B. what did your mother say C. your mother said what 32. Did you know ____? A. who he was looking after B. who was he looking for C. who he is looking for 33. Could you tell me ___? A. when will they leave Beijing B. when would they leave Beijing C. when they will leave Beijing 34. In the bookshop, a reader asked the shop keeper _he could buy the book on the table. A. that B. how C. if 35. —I don't know _____ Mr. Green will come to see us. —He will help us with our English. A. why B. when C. how 36. —We never know _____ the old man is. —They say he is Liming’s father. A. who B. what C. which 37. I was told _____ Bill Gates was thirteen he began to play with computers. A. that how B. how that C. that when 38. —Where do you think _____ he _____ the computer? —Sorry, I have no idea. A. /; bought B. has; bought C. did; buy 39. I don't feel very well. Mum asked me _____ this morning. A. what the matter is B. what is wrong C. what the matter was  40. Could you tell me _______? A. When will Mary come back B. When Mary comes back C. When Mary will come back  41. Lucy didn’t know________ .        A. if Joe will go to Beijing .       B. why did Joe go to Beijing        C. if Joe would go to Beijing  42. --Oh, sorry, I'm a little late. I couldn't remember___________.         ---That's all right.         A. when will the meeting begin       B. when the meeting would begin         C. When would the meeting begin 43-----Could you tell me ? -----Pardon? You mean the police station? A. Where is the police station B. Where the police are C. How can I get to the police station 44.-----Excuse me, what does the teacher want to know? ------He wants to know ________________. A. when will you finish your work B. when you finish your work C. when you will finish your work 45. The professor didn't know _____ the meeting. A. when he will have B. when he would have C. when would he have 46. –Did Jenny call me just now?--Yes, she wondered _____ tonight. A. when you will be free B. that you would be free C. if you would be free 47. Cooking dinner is difficult. Could you tell me _____? A. what to do it B. how to do it C. where to go 48. He is not sure _____. A. which coat he should buy B. which he should buy coat C. what coat he buy 49. You can’t imagine _____ when she heard the good news. A. how she was happy B. how happy she was C. she was how happy 50. Could you please tell me ____now? A. where is Mary B. where Mary is C. where Mary was 参考答案 1—5CBBCC 6—10ABCCC 11—15ACBAA 16—20ACCBC 21—25CBBAA 26—30ACBCB 31—35AACCA 36—40ACACC 41—45CBBCB 46—50CBABB 专题一四 定语从句 考点聚焦 一、什么是定语从句 定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

二、定语从句的关系词 一般情况下,如果先行词表示人的名词或代词时,关系词应用who,whom或that。who和that在从句中可以作主语或宾语;
whom在从句中作宾语。

whose在从句中常作主语的定语,通常指人,也可以指物,表示“谁的……”.。

先行词如果是表示物的名词或代词时,用that或which均可,但有些情况只能用that,有些情况只能用which。

三、在下列情况下,定语从句的关系代词多用that 1. 当先行词为all,something,anything等不定代词时用that。如:
You should tell me all(that)you have know about. 你因该把你所知道的情况告诉我。

Here is something that my father needs. 这正是我父亲所需要的东西。

2. 当先行词被every, no, some, any, little, much等修饰时,用that。如:
He has spent all the money that his father gave him. 他已经把父亲给他的钱都花掉了。

Tom tried every means that he could do to finish the job on time but he failed. 为了完成工作,汤姆想尽了一切办法,但他还是失败了。

3. 当先行词被序数词或形容词的最高级修饰时,用that。如:
This is the second letter that I received from my younger sister this month. 这是我这个月收到我妹妹的第二封信。

Gone with the Wind is one of the best films that I have ever seen.《乱世佳人》是我看过的最好的影片之一。

4. 先行词被only, very, same, last等词修饰时,用that。如:
This is the only book that you can read in these few days. 这是你最近几天能看的唯一一本书了。

That is the very magazine that he is looking for . 那正是他要找的那本杂志。

4. 在限制性定语从句中关系代词作表语时应用that。如:
The distance that you are from home is immaterial. 你离家的距离是微不足道的。

6. 当主语中已出现which而为了避免重复时使用that。如:
Which is the book that you need? 你需要的是哪一本书呢? 7. 当先行词既有人,又有物时,引导词只用that。如:
He can see two boys and some trees that are at a distance of five hundred meters. 他看见在五百米外有两个男孩和一些树。

四、在下列情况中则多用which 1. 非限制性定语从句多用which。如:
Canada, which is in North America, is the second largest country in the world. 位于北美洲的加拿大是世界第二大国。

2. 介词之后的定语从句多用which。如:
This is the stamp for which he is looking. 这正是他要找的那枚邮票。

3.“those+复数名词”之后的定语从句,用which。如:
A supermarket should keep a stock of those goods which sell well. 商场应储存一些销量好的商品。

4.定语从句离先行词较远时,用which。如:
My grandmother gave me a gift of great value on my birthday which I liked very much. 在我生日的那一天,我奶奶给了我一件非常珍贵的礼物,我非常喜欢它。

5. 先行词为代词that时,为避免重复,其后的定语从句的引导词多用which(非正式英语也用that)。如:
He told me that which I had told you before. 他告诉我的是以前我曾经给你说过的那件事。

五、在下列情况下,关系代词一般用who(指人) 1. 非限制性定语从句中,用who。如:
Lincoln,who was murdered at a theatre in Washington,D.C.,died on April 15,1865. 林肯在首都华盛顿的一家剧院被人暗杀,于1865年4月15日去世。

2. 当不定代词everybody(everyone),anybody(anyone),all one,ones等为先行词时,关系代词一般用who。如:
One who doesn’t work hard will never succeed. 不努力的人永远不会成功的。

Is there anybody who can swim across the river? 有人能游过这条河吗? 3.当先行词为those或people时,关系代词一般用who. Those who want to see the exhibition must sign their names here. 要看这个展览的人必须在这里签名。

People who can see sometimes act just as foolishly. 有时候,眼睛看得见的人也会做同样的傻事。

4.在被分割开来的定语从句中,先行词为人时,关系代词一般用who,如:
I met a boy at the English Corner yesterday who can speak English fluently. 昨天,我在英语角上遇到一个能讲一口流利英语的男孩。

5.在以there be 开头的存在句型中,先行词为人,关系代词一般用who.如:
There was an old lady who wanted to see you at the gate just now. 刚才大门口有一位老妇人有事找你。

实战演练(2×50) 计分: 1. Is the girl ___is reading a book under that big tree your sister? No. My sister is in France. A. who B. whom C. whose 2. Jim dislike people _____talk much but never do anything. A .who B. whom C. whose 3. This is the school _____I studied in three years ago. A. where B. when C. which 4. What do you usually do in your leisure time? I enjoy reading in the library _____I lose myself with a lot of good books. A. where B. when C. which 5. I love singers _____write their own music A .who B. which C. what 6. The village _____I visited last year has changed a lot. Really? I hope to go there one day. A. that B. who C. when 7 .The old woman _____is wearing a pair of glasses _____Mrs.Black A. which, are B. who, are C. who ,is 8. Do you like music _____makes you relaxed? A. it B. what C. that 9. The girl _____.you talked with at the school gate is our new math teacher. A. whose B. which C. whom 10. I like the teacher ______is strict with us. A. which B. who C. whose 11. I cannot forget the time ______the earthquake happened on in Yushu. A. when B. which C. who 12. Do you know the boy ______is sitting next to Peter. Yes ,He is Peter`s friend.They are celebrating his ninth birthday. A. who B. whose C. which 13. I have bought a dress _____I like best . A. who B. where C. which 14. The camel ______I rode had a bad temper, and I got tired. A. that B. whose C. who 15..George Mallory was an English teacher loved climbing. A. who B. whom C. he 16. The duty of Project Hope is to help poor children , isn`t it? Yes ,it has built many schools ______those children can study happily. A. where B. when C. whom 17. The police caught the man _____stole my hand-bag. A. he B. that C. whom 18. The foreigner ______visited our school is from Canada. A. which B. who C. whose 19. Anyone ______is punished. A. who break the rules B. who breaks the rules C. whom break the rules 20. The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace. A. Which B. where C. what 21.Do you know the man _______? A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to 22.This is the hotel _______last month. A. which they stayed in B. at that they stayed C. where they stayed at 23. Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded? A. which B. that C. in which 24. That is the day ______I'll never forget. A. which B. on which C. in which 25. The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here. A. where B. to which C. which 26. Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working. A. where B. that C. which 27.This is one of the best films _______. . A. that have been shown this year B. that have shown C. that has been shown this year 28. Can you lend me the book ______the other day? A. about which you talked B. which you talked C. about that you talked 29. The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which 30.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy. A. whom B. who C. which 31.Is there anyone in your class ______family is in the country? A. who B. who's C. whose 32.I'm interested in all ______you have said. A. that B. what C. which 33. I want to use the dictionary ______was used yesterday. A. which B. who C. what 34. He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom 35. The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing. A. which B. that C. who 36. In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women. A. them B. which C. whom 37. I lost a book, ______I can't remember now. A. whose title B. its title C. the title of it 38. Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world. A. for which B. for that C. in which 39. I can never forget the day when we worked together and the day ______ we spent together. A. which B. when C. on which; 40. The man ______hair is white is American. A. which B. whose C. what 41. My neighbors used to give me a hand in time of trouble, _______ was very kind of them. A. who B. which C. it 42. I shall never forget those years _______ I spend on the farm with the farmers. A. when B. that C. where 43. The number of the people who _______ cars _______ increasing. A. owns; are B. own; is C. own; are 44. Is oxygen the only gas _______ helps fire burn? A. that B. / C. which 45. John got beaten in the game, _______ had been expected. A. which B. that C. what 46. Do you know the woman about her information _____ is crying over there? A. who B. whose C. which 47. -- Do you know the boy _______ wears a blue shirt?        -- Yes, he’s Jill.        A. who               B. which                      C. whose 48. --What kind of music would your mother like? -- She prefers music      quiet and gentle. A. that are           B. that is                 C. which has      49.-----The skirt is made of silk is very comfortable. Would you like one? ---- Let me have a look . A. who B. what C. that 50. I like places _____ are quiet and beautiful. A. those B. which C. where 参考答案 1—5AACAA 6—10ACCCB 11—15BACAA 16—20ABBBA 21—25CACAC 26—30ACAAC 31—35CAABC 36—40CAAAB 41—45BBBAA 45—50AABCB 专题一五 状语从句 考点聚焦 状语从句的定义 用来修饰动词和形容词,以表明动作发生或状态存在的时间,地点,原因等等的句子叫做状语从句。

状语从句的分类 一、时间状语从句 时间状语从句表示时间,引导词有:when, while, as, till, until before, after, since等。

时间状语从句的引导词所表示的意思不尽相同,要注意把握不同引导词所表示的不同时间关系,以及它在具体句子中对应的时态、语态等问题。

注意:as(在……时候,因为),since(自从,因为),它们可以引导时间从句,并强调主句和从句的动作同事发生。并且while有时还可以表示对比。例如:
(1)While my mother was reading the newspaper, I was watching TV.(read是延续性的动词,read和watch同事发生) I like playing football while you like playing basketball.我喜欢踢足球,而你喜欢打篮球。(对比) (2)when(当……的时候),引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性动词,也可以是瞬间动词。从句动作可与主语动作同事发生,也可在其后发生。

I was reading a book when she came into my room.(come是瞬间动词,只能用when引导,不能用while) I often missed my home when(while) I lived in NewYork.(live是延续性动词,when可用while代替) (3)when和while的区别还在于:while引导的时间状语从句多用于进行时态,而when引导的时间状语从句多用于一般时态。

While they were talking, the bell rang.正在他们谈话的时候,上课铃响了。

(4)as译作 “一边……一边”、“随着……”,侧重主句和从句的动作同时发生。有时可与when,while通用。

We always sing as we walk.我们总是边走边唱。(as表示“一边……一边”) As you grow, you will know more and more。随着年龄的增长,你会懂得越来越多。

2.till或until引导的时间状语从句 till,until(直到……才):一般情况下两者可以互换,但是在强调句型中多用until。till不可以在句首,而until可以放在句首。

注意:如果主句中的的谓语动词是瞬间动词时,必须用否定形式;
如果主句中的谓语动词是延续性动词时,用肯定或否定形式都可以,但表达的意思不同。例如:
I didn’t go to bed until(till) my father came back.直到我父亲回来我才上床睡觉。(go to bed 是瞬间动词,主句用否定形式) I talked until he came back.我工作到他回来为止 I didn't work until he came back.他回来我这才开始工作 Please wait until I arrived.在我到达之前等我。

3.since引导的时间状语从句 Since(自从):引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性的动词,也可以是瞬时动词。一般情况下,从句谓语动词用一般过去时,而主句的谓语动作用现在完成时。但在It is+时间+since从句的句型中,主句多用一般现在时。例如:
I have been in Beijing since you left. 自从你离开以来,我一直在北京。

Where have you been since I last saw you? 自上次我和你见面以后,你到哪里去了? It is five months since our boss was in Beijing. 我们老板离开北京有五个月了。

4.由before和after引导的时间状语从句 注意:(1)before(在……之前):引导的从句不再用否定的谓语。

(2)当主句用将来时,从句总是用现在时;
如果before引导的从句谓语用的是过去时。则主句动词多用过去完成时,这样以便体现动作发生的先后。

(3)after(在……之后):表示主句动作发生在从句动作之后。如果主句用的是过去时,则从句多用过去完成时。例如:
It will be four days before they come back. 他们要过四天才能回来 My father had left for Canada just before the letter arrived. 我父亲恰好在信到之前去加拿大了。

After we had finished the work, we went home. 完成工作之后,我们回家了(从句用过去完成时,主句用一般过去时) 5.由as soon as ,immediately, directly ,instantly, the moment, the instant, the minute,等引导的时间状语从句:这些连词都表示“一……就”。例如:
I will go there directly I have finished my breakfast.吃完早饭,我立即到那里去。

The moment I heard the news, I went to the school. 我一听到消息,马上赶到了学校。

As soon as I reach Canada, I will ring you up.我一到加拿大,就给你来电话。

注意 hardly(scarcely,rarely)……when,before,no sooner …than相当于 as soon as之意。主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时态。当hardly,scarcely, rarely和 no sooner位于句首时,主句应用倒装语序。例如:
Hardly had I sat down when he stepped in ,我刚坐下,他就进来了。

二、原因状语从句 原因状语从句表原因,常见的引导词有:because(因为),since(既然),as(既然),for(因为) 1.becausey引导的原因状语从句一般放于主句之后,because表示直接原因,语气最强,回答why引导的疑问句必须使用because。

I do it because I like it.. ——Why didn’t he come yesterday? ——Because he had something important to do. 注意 “not……because” 结构中的not否定的是because引导的整个从句,例如:The country is not strong because it is large.国强不在大. 2.Since引导的原因状语从句一般位于主句之前,表示已知的、显然的理由。通常被翻译成“既然”,较为正式,语气比because弱。。

Since you are free today, you had better help me with my mathematics,既然今天你休息,你最好帮我补习数学。

3.as引导原因状语从句时表示附带说明的“双方已知的原因”,语气比since弱,较正式,位置较灵活,常放于主句之前。

As it is raining, you’d better take a taxi,既然在下雨,你最好乘出租汽车。

4. for引导的原因状语从句并不说明主句行为发生的直接原因,只提供一些辅助性的补充说明,for引导的原因状语从句只能放于主句之后并且必须用逗号将其与主句隔开。

He could not have seen me, for I was not there.他不可能见过我,因为我不在那里。

三、条件状语从句 引导条件句常用的连词有if(如果),unless(如果不,除非)等,条件状语从句和时间状语从句一样,表示将来要用一般现在时态。

We won’t let you in unless you show your pass. If you fail again this time,what will you do? (1)if引导的条件状语从句表示将来时,要用一般现在时代替,主句仍使用一般将来时态。

(2)将if引导的宾语从句和状语从句进行混淆考查,宾语从句中的if表示“是否”,可以使用一般将来时。

四、让步状语从句 让步状语从句表示“虽然,即使,尽管”。引导词有although,though,even though, even if都表示“虽然,即使,尽管”之意。主句中不能用but,但可用yet、 Though和although语气较弱(其中的though比although通俗,不如although正式),even if和even though带有强调意味而显得语气更强。例如:
Although they are poor ,they are happy yet.虽然他们很穷,但很快乐 The article is very important though it is short.那篇文章虽然很短,但很重要。

Even though it was raining, she walked to work.即使下雨,她也是走着去工作的。

I’ll visit him this evening even if I can stay only a few minutes.今晚我将去拜访他,即使我只能停留一小会儿。

注意though引导的让步状语从句的用法比较特殊,它可以倒装,也可以不倒装。

五、地点状语从句 地点状语从句常由where和wherever引导,通常可置于主句之前或之后。

如:We should go where(ver) we are most needed,我们要去最需要我们的地方。

Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者,事竟成。

六、目的状语从句 目的状语从句通常由so that, in order that 引导,所引导的从句通常放在主句后面。目的状语从句中的谓语常含有may (might),can (could),shall ,will 等情态动词。

如:He always takes a seat in the first row so that/in order that he can hear better. = In order that he can hear better, he always takes a seat in the first row.为了听得更清楚,他总是坐前排的座位。

七、结果状语从句 结果状语从句常由so that, so…that, such…that等引导,放在主句之后,so…that与such…that句型在一定条件下可转换。

如:He made such an excellent speech that everyone admired him. = He made so excellent a speech that everyone admired him. 他的演讲如此精彩以至于每个人都很钦佩他。

注意 so that 引导结果状语从句和目的状语从句的辨别 so that从句之前有个逗号的常为结果状语从句,因表示某一行为带来的结果,从句中的时态常为过去式;

so that从句中有may(might),can(could),should, will等情态动词的通常是目的状语从句。

如:I wrote as clearly as possible, so that I got high marks.(目的)我尽可能地写清楚些,这样可以得高分。

He went to the lecture early so that he could get a good seat.(目的)他很早就去听报告了,以便可以找到一个好座位。

He went to the lecture early, so that he got a good seat.(结果)他很早就去听报告了,这样他就找到一个好座位。

八、比较状语从句 1.比较状语从句常由as…as,not so(as),than引导。比较从句部分常为省略句。

如:His brother is as handsome as he (is)/him.(非正式英语中可用宾格him)他弟弟和他一样英俊。

He swims faster than any other student in his class(does).他比班上其他任何人都游得快。

2.通常把the more…the more…结构也归为比较从句,意为:“越…越”。

如:The harder you work, the greater progress you’ll make.你越努力学习,就会取得越大的进步。

The less she worried, the better she worked.她担心得越少,就工作得越好。

九、方式状语从句 1.方式状语从句常由(just)as(像…),as if/though(好像)引导,表示动作的方式。

如:Do exactly as the doctor says.一定要按照大夫的话去做。

He walked slowly as if/though he had hurt his leg.他慢慢地走着,仿佛是腿受了伤。

注:在非正式问题中有时会用like代替as引导方式从句。

2.as if/though引导的状语从句,若描述非事实情况,常用虚拟语气,若描述的是实际情况,用陈述语气。

如:She treats the orphan as if/though he was her own child.她对待孤儿就像是她自己的孩子一样。(他是孤儿,当然就不是她亲生孩子,故用虚拟语气。) It looks as if/though it’s going to rain.看起来天像是要下雨了。(本句用的是陈述语气,说明天真象是要下雨了。) 实战演练(2×50) 计分: 1. I don’t know if it tomorrow ,if it , we won’t go on a picnic. A. rains; rains B. will rain; rains C. will rain; will rain 2. We can’t go to the zoo ___ the weather is fine tomorrow. A. unless B. if C. because 3. Just work hard, ____ your dream will come true. A. but B. and C. or 4. Don’t cross the street ____ the traffic lights are green. A. after B. until C. when 5. ____ they may not succeed, they will try their best. A. Though B. Because C. Unless 6. We will have no water to dink we don’t protect the earth.. A. until B. before C. if 7. Luckily, all the students got out of the teaching building if fell down. A. until B. before C. after 8. My grandma didn’t go sleep I got back home. A. where B. until C. as soon as 9. Uncle Wang gave all his savings to the Hope School ______he himself was not rich.       A. because                 B. as if                   C. though      10.You’ll do better you are more careful with your spelling. A .if B. before C. although 11.The sports meeting will continue it rains this afternoon. A. if B. since C. unless 12.I’ll give her the message she comes back. A. till B. before C. as soon as 13.Jim is going to be a doctor when he _______ .          A. will grow up          B. grows up                C. grow up    14.—Did you catch what the teacher said? —No. She spoke so fast I couldn’t hear her very clearly. A .which B. that C. when 15.The teacher speaks very loudly all the students can hear her. A. so that B. because C. since 16. Study hard, _______ you will catch up with your classmates. A. and B. or C. but 17. Several days has passed _________ the terrible earthquake happened in Japan. A. after B. since C. as 18. It’s raining outside. Don’t leave _______ it stops. A. When B. since C. until 19. _________ it’s difficult to make her dream come true, but she never gives up. A. Though B. / C. Because 20. ____ you go to the party, you will have a good time. A. If B. Though C. Because 21.--- Is WuDong at school today ? ---- No, he is at home____ he has a bad cold. A. When B. Though C. Because 22.There are many books on math in the bookshop that he can’t decide which to choose. A. so B. too C. such 23.He got up early he could get to school on time A. even though B. as if C. so that 24.She is short she can’t reach the buttons of the lift A .so, that B. such, that C. too, to 25.---Mum, what did the doctor say ? --- He asked me to live ____ the air is fresher. A. where B. when C. because 26.The piano in the other shop will be ____ ,but____. A. cheaper ; not as better B. more cheap; not asbetter C. cheaper ; not as good 27.All of us haven’t seen Mike he left our city. A. when B. until C. since 28. they are poor, yet they are very honest. A. Because B. Although C. When 29. ---What was the party like? ---Wonderful. It’s years __________I enjoyed myself so much. A. after B. before C. since 30. Why do you want a new job __________you got such a good one already? A. that B. where C. when 31. You will be late ______________you leave immediately. A. unless B. until C. if 32. We won’t give up ______________we may fail ten times. A. even if B. since C. whether 33. The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she _________. A. will arrive B. arrives C. is arriving 34. The volleyball match will be put off if it _______________. A. will rain B. rains C. rained 35. It rained___ heavily that they didn’t come. A. as B. too C. so 36. I often visited Tian’an Men Square ____________I was staying in Beijing. A. until B. during C. while 37. He always thinks I’m wrong, _____________I may say. A. no matter whatever B. whatever C. what 38. __________the rain has stopped, let’s continue to work. A. Because B. If C. That 39. They waited __________it was dark A. until B for C. because 40. You will catch a cold _____________put on more clothes. A. if you don’t B. if you will not C. until you 41. We had hardly got to the station __________it began no rain. A. until B. since C when 42. They were surprised that a child should work out the problem __they themselves couldn’t. A. once B. then C. while 43. My name is Robert, ___________most of my friends call me Bob for short. A. then B. instead C. however 44. Hurry up, _______ you will be late. A. and B. or C. but 45. Several days has passed _________ the terrible earthquake happened in Japan. A .after B. since C. as 46. _________ he is young, he knows a lot. A. Though B. / C. Because 47. My friends always go shopping when _____. A. it is sunny B. it will be sunny C. it is raining 48. We are not sure if the bus _____ on time. If it _____ on time , we will take a taxi. A. comes; doesn’t come B. will come; won’t come C. will come; doesn’t come 49. Lucy came to the library early _____ she borrowed her favorite book. A. since B. for C. so that 50. We couldn’t get to school on time ____ it was raining heavily. A. because of B. because C. though 参考答案1—5BABBA 6—10CBBCA 11—15CCBBA 16—20ABCBA 21-25CACAA 26—30CCBCC 31—35AABBC 36—40CBAAA 41—45CCCBC 46—50AACCB

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