1 This businessman has successfully targeted a different group of consumers.
2 With careful forward planning, this businessman is helping the company survive a difficult period.
3 The company is now more open to change because of this businessman"s way of thinking.
4 This businessman has made and implemented certain decisions despite opposition to them.
5 This businessman has achieved some success by misleading people about his intentions.
6 The abilities of this businessman were previously doubted by the company that employs him.
7 This businessman is admired for his ability to manage a number of business interests.
"Businessman of the Year" Award
A James King: Chief E*ecutive of Fentons Finance
King was nominated for the quality of his leadership, with the judges claiming that the Fentons Finance boss is almost revered by his team. He is credited with reinventing Fentons Finance - revitalising its culture of infle*ibility, removing outdated pre-merger barriers and playing a brilliant tactical game. He led everyone to believe he was opposed to large mergers and then jumped on the Westcombe Bank opportunity at just the right moment. History will be the judge, but for now the markets consider King to be a star.
B Keith Nash: Chief E*ecutive of Hamley"s Supermarkets
Nash took over as CEO when Hamley"s systems and distribution were out of date and the brand badly needed freshening up. He began refocusing the brand at the higher quality end of the food market and launched several own-brand initiatives fnscious. As a result, the share price has gone up nearly 80 per cent. This should be e*tremely satisfying for Nash, who had left the retailer in 1986, disappointed after failing to secure the top job.
C Jorge Marquez: Chairman of the Kenwick Group
Marquez was a popular choice for his achievements at Kenwick. The judges say he has been courageous in pushing through the appointment of controversial or ine*perienced chief e*ecutives to companies within the group, and then sponsoring them as they transformed their businesses. He operates as a "virtual" chairman, without a permanent office in any one company. He phones his CEOs regularly, and several of them have acknowledged the vital contribution he makes to their effectiveness. Everyone is impressed at how he also finds the time to be chairman of two other large companies.
D Richard Jenkins: Finance Director of Centron Advertising
Labouring in the shadow of a high-profile boss can sometimes draw attention away from the finance director, and the judges considered it was high time Jenkins got that attention. The CEO may be the public face of Centron, but Jenkins is the one who makes it run smoothly. Behind the scenes, he is constantly demonstrating that budgets and forecasts are what is needed to make a company successful, particularly now that the advertising market has been hit by recession. It is largely thanks to him that Centron is in much better shape than its rivals.
《‘Businessman of the Year" Award》年度企业家奖。分别介绍了这个奖项的四个候选人的英雄事迹。
第一题，这个企业家成功的定位了不同的消费群体。答案在 B 段：He began refocusing the brand at the higher quality end of the food market and launched several own-brand initiatives fnscious。他开始将品牌定位在高质量的食品市场并且发起了几项注重健康的自主品牌的运动。Health conscious 是指注重健康的。一个是高质量的食品市场，一个是注重健康的，联合起来，就是瞄准了不同的消费市场，即不同的消费群体。
第二题，通过小心的前进计划，这个企业家帮助公司度过了一个困难时期。答案是 D 段的这么一句：budgets and forecasts are what is needed to make a company successful, particularly now that the advertising market has been hit by recession.。预算和预告正是使得公司可以成功的，尤其当现在整个广告市场被衰退袭击的时候。Budgets and forecast 就是题干中说的 careful forward planning，successful 对应于 survive，a different period 对应于 the market has been hit by recession。
第三题，因为这个企业家的思维方式，公司对待变化更加开明了。答案是 A段的这么一句：He is credited with reinventing Fentons Finance - revitalising its culture of infle*ibility。他以重塑了 Fentons Finance 而受到嘉奖――给了固定守旧的文化以新的生命。more open to change 就可以对应于 revitalising its culture of infle*ibility。revitalising 是 give new life to 的意思。
第四题，尽管有反对意见，这个企业家还是制定并执行了某些决定。答案是C 段的这么一句：he has been courageous in pushing through the appointment of controversial or ine*perienced chief e*ecutives to companies within the group 在推动某些争议性的或者是经验不足的执行官的任命时他很有勇气。从controversial 和 courageous 可以看出来，这些任命时不完全被接受的，有反对意见(opposition)，但他还是坚持了。
第五题，这个企业家通过让人们误会自己的意图而取得某些成功。答案是 A段的这么一句：He led everyone to believe he was opposed to large mergers and then jumped on the Westcombe Bank opportunity at just the right moment他让所有人相信他是反对大的并购的，然后在最佳时期跳上 Westcombe 银行的机会(即收购了这个银行)。let everyone believe，也就是 misleading people about his intentions。
第六题，这个企业家的能力最初在雇佣他的公司里受到了怀疑。答案是 B 段最后一句，稍微隐晦点：This should be e*tremely satisfying for Nash, who had left the retailer in 1986, disappointed after failing to secure the top job.因为无法得到高层的职位而失望离开，结果因为他的决策，公司股价上升了，让他很满足。意思就是本来以这个人的能力是可以胜任高层的工作的，但是他却没有得到。
第七题，这个企业家因为处理一些商业利益的能力而受到仰慕。答案在 C 段。C 段最后说这个人在不同的公司担任要职(be chairman)，不同的公司会有商业利益的冲突，而他却能好好处理(manage)，所以答案选 C。
Achieving a successful mergerHowever attractive the figures may look on paper, in the long run the success or failure of a merger depends on the human factor. When the agreement has been signed and the accountants have departed, the real problems may only just be beginning. If there is a culture clash between the two companies in the way their people work, then all the efforts of the financiers and lawyers to strike a deal may have been rding to Chris Boltonnsultants, **% of mergers fail to live up to their promise of shareholder value, riot through any failure in economic terms but because the integration of people is unsuccessful. Corporates, he e*plains, concentrate their efforts before a merger on legal, technical and financial matters. They employ a range of e*perts to obtain the most favourable contract possible. But even at these early stages, people issues must be taken into consideration. The strengths and weaknesses of both organisations should be assessed and, if it is a merger of equals, then careful thought should be given to which personnel, from which side, should take on the key roles.
This was the issue in 2001 when the proposed merger between two pharmaceutical companies promised to create one of the largest players in the industry. For both companies the merger was intended to reverse falling market share and shareholder value. However, although the companies" skill bases were compatible, the chief e*ecutives of the two companies could not agree which of them was to head up the new organisation. This illustrates the need to compromise if a merger is to take place.
But even in mergers that do go ahead, there can be culture clashes. One way to avoid this is to work with focus groups to see how employees view the e*isting culture of their organisation. In one e*ample, where two global organisations in the food sector were planning to merge, focus groups discovered that the companies displayed very different profiles. One was sales-focused, knew e*actly what it wanted to achieve and pushed initiatives through. The other got involved in lengthy discussions, trying out options methodically and making contingency plans. The first responded quickly to changes in the marketplace; the second took longer, but the option it eventually chose was usually the correct one. Neither company"s approach would have worked for the other.
The answer is not to adopt one company"s approach, or even to try to incorporate every aspect of both organisations, but to create a totally new culture. This means taking the best from both sides and making a new organisation that everyone can accept. Or almost everyone. Inevitably there will be those who cannot adapt to a different culture. Research into the impact of mergers has found that companies with differing management styles are the ones that need to work hardest at creating a new culture.
Another tool that can help to get the right cultural mi* is intercultural analysis. This involves carrying out research that looks at the culture of a company and the business culture of the country in which it is based. It identifiney and time are managed in a company, and investigates the business customs of the country and how its politics, economics and history impact on the way business is done.
13 According to the te*t, mergers can encounter probntracts are signed too quickly.
B e*perts cannot predict accurate fnflicting attitudes cannot be resolved.
D staff are opposed to the terms of the deal.
14 According to Chris Bolton, what do many organisations do in preparation for a merger?
A ensure their interests are represented
B give reassurances to sharehnsider the effect of a merger on employees
D analyse the varying strengths of their staff
15 The proposed merger of two pharmaceutical groups failed because
A major shareholders were opposed.
B there was a fall in the demand for their products.
C there were problems combining their areas of e*pertise.
D an issue of personal rivalry could not be resolved.
16 According to the te*t, focus groups can help companies to
A develop new initiatives.
B adopt contingency plans.
C be decisive and react rapidly.
D evaluate how well matched they are.
17 Creating a new culture in a newly merged organisation means that
A management re fle*ible.
B there is more chance of the merger working.
C staff will find it more difficult to adapt to the changes.
D successful elements of the original organisations are lost.
18 According to the te*t, intercultural analysis will show
A what kind of benefits a merger can lead to.
B how the national conte*t affects the way a company is run.
C how long it will take for a company culture to develop.
D what changes companies should make before a merger takes place.
《Achieving a successful merger》，实现一个成功的并购。文章没有从技术和经济效益的角度来分析并购成功的因素，而是强调了一个在并购中容易被忽视的重要因素：文化冲突。不同的企业文化走到了一起，能否兼容是并购能否成功的关键因素。一个比较著名的例子是当年惠普与康柏的并购。
第十三题，问什么情况下并购会遇到麻烦。答案是 A 段的最后一句，关键词是 culture clash：如果两个公司的员工在工作方式上存在文化冲突，那么金融专家和律师们为了达成交易所做的一切努力都是徒劳的。所以选 C：冲突性的态度无法得到解决。Conflicting attitude 对应于 culture clash。attitude 具体指公司员工做事情的方式和态度。
第十四题，问很多机构为并购所做的准备是什么。答案是第二段的这么一句话：Corporates, he e*plains, concentrate their efforts before a merger on legal, technical and financial matters。公司都把精力集中在法律、技术和金融事务上了。也就是更多的看重经济等方面的利益，而忽视了人的因素。选 A：确保他们的利益得到很好的反映，也就是自己的利益有保障。represent 在这里的意思是 be present or found in something, especially to a particular degree。
第十五题，问这俩医药公司并购失败的原因是什么。答案是第三段的倒数第二句：the chief e*ecutives of the two companies could not agree which of them was to head up the new organisation.在谁来领导新的机构的问题上无法达成一致。所以选D：人员竞争问题无法得到解决。Personal rivalry就是指两个领导谁也不服谁。
第十六题，问 focus group 可以帮助公司干什么。先弄明白 focus group 的意思，看剑桥高阶的解释：a group of people who have been brought together to discuss a particular subject in order to solve a problem or suggest ideas。处理问题的团体。答案在第四段。这一段是举例说明两个合并公司的文化兼容性问题。经过focus group的调查，这两个公司的做事方式有很大差别，不能兼容。所以这一题的答案是选 D：评估他们能否匹配。
第十七题，问在一个新合并的公司里创造新的文化意味着什么。答案是第五段的这么一句：This means taking the best from both sides and making a new organisation that everyone can accept。吸取双方的优点，创造一个所有人都能接受的新组织。每个人都能接受，那么合并成功的可能性会大大增加。选 B：合并起作用的几率增加了。
Setting up an appraisal scheme
Appraisals can be a wonderful opportunity for your staff to focus on their jobs and make plans to develop their unused potential. (0) ..........So, if you have decided that an appraisal scheme should be set up in your company, you need to establish some formal procedures and make some decisions before you begin. Even if your company already has a scheme, you need to consider what you want to achieve and how you are going to do this.
First of all, you need to decide on your key objectives and the real purpose of your scheme.(8).............A scheme should never be introduced at a time of redundancies, or simply for profit or competitive edge, because this will create fear and alienate staff. The ne*t step is to decide how the scheme can most successfully be managed. It is essential that all senior staff are committed to the process and willing to make a positive contribution.
The person given responsibility for designing the scheme and the appraisal forms needs to have knowledge of all roles within the organisation. He or she must also be aware of employees" potential needs. (9).............It should be someone who is trusted and whom staff will turn to if they are concerned about their appointed appraiser or the appraisal interview. The design of the scheme should indicate who will be appraising whom. This needs great tact and sensitivity. First, remember that no manager can effectively appraise more than seven or eight people. It is equally important to remember that, if significant numbers of staff are appraised by someone they dislike, or by a person whose values they do not share, the success of your scheme may be threatened.(10) ............. So bear this in mind from the beginning and, if necessary, establish an appeals procedure.
Having decided on your policy and who will appraise which members of staff, you need to communicate this in the simplest possible way. Avoid lengthy documents - few people will read them. (11).............Most organisations choose a person"s line manager to be the appraiser. This can be seen as an opportunity or a threat, so be ready to consider alternatives if necessary.
Once you have established the appraisal process, make sure that appraisal interviews take place at a convenient time, and ideally on neutral ground. It should be borne in mind that some appraisals may involve the disclosure of confidential information. (12) .............These will show the decisions that were taken during the interview and will also indicate any new performance targets that have been agreed.
A It is important to select a manager who can deal effectively with any suspicions staff may have about appraisals.
B Such a measure can also reduce insecurity and unite staff in recognising the positive elements of appraisal.
C Having even one staff member in such a position may affect how others respond to the process.
D Ideally, this should be to provide a supportive framework that aids staff development.
E Simply make sure that staff know who will appraise them and why, and what form the interview will take.
F It is therefore important to decide who will have access to written records of the appraisal.
G They can also be a means of getting the best out of staff, both as individuals, and as team members.
《Setting up an appraisal scheme》，制定评估计划。
第九题，这一段是讲选人的重要。空格前面说要挑选一个了解各个员工潜在需求的人，后面说这个人要能被大家信任，这样当员工有什么疑问时才会转向他。从上下文看，第九空仍然是和选人有关。A 最符合这个特点，有两个关键地方。select a manager 和 deal with any suspicions，分别可以和上下文对应。Select a manager 可以对应于前面的 the person given responsibility，deal with any suspicions 可以对应于后文的 staff will turn to if they are concerned.
第十题，前面说让员工被自己不喜欢的或者是价值观不认同的人来评估的话，评估计划的成功会打折扣。所以这个第十空的讲的还是关于选人的。C 可以填在这里，C 选项的 in such a position 是个暗示：让即使只有一个员工处在这样的位置上都会影响他人的反应。意思是不能让一个被大家不喜欢的人处在评估人的位置上。
第十二题，前面说评估可能会涉及到一些机密信息的披露。后面说这些会展现一些访谈的决定。关键要理解空格后面的 these 代表什么。能够 show the decisions that were taken during the interview，一般是文字材料。空格 12应该填入 F，written records 是个关键暗示：因此决定谁来接触这些文字材料是很重要的。
Department Store Magic
For most of the 20th century Smithson"s was one of Britain"s most successful department stores, but by the mid-1990s, it had become dull. Still profitable, thanks largely to a series of successful advertising campaigns, but decidedly boring. The famous were careful not to be seen there, and its sales staff didn"t seem to have changed since the store opened in 1908. Worst of all, its customers were buying fewer and fewer of its own-brand products,the major part of its business, and showing a preference for more fashionable brands.
But now all this has changed, thanks to Rowena Baker, who became Smithson"s first woman Chief E*ecutive three years ago. Since then, while most major retailers in Britain have been losing money, Smithson"s profits have been rising steadily. When Baker started, a lot of improvements had just been made to the building, without having any effect on sales, and she took the bold decision to invite one of Europe"s most e*citing interior designers to develop the fashion area, the heart of the store. This very quickly led to rising sales, even before the goods on display were changed. And as sales grew, so did profits.
Baker had ambitious plans for the store from the start. "We"re playing a big game, to prove we"re up there with the leaders in our sector, and we have to make sure people get that message. Smithson"s had fallen behind the competition. It provided a traditional service targeted at middle-aged, middle-income customers, who"d been shopping there for years, and the customer base ntracting. Our idea is to sell such an e*citing variety of goods that everyone will want to come in, whether they plan to spend a little or a lot." Baker"s vision for the store is clear, but achieving it is far from simple. At first, many employees resisted her improvements because they just wouldn"t be persuaded that there was anything wrong with the way they"d always done things, even if they accepted that the store had to overtake its competitors. It took many long meetings, involving the entire workforce, to win their support. It helped when they realised that Baker was a very different kind of manager from the ones they had known.
Baker"s staff policies contained more surprises. The uniform that had hardly changed since day one has now disappeared. Moreover, teenagers now get young shop assistants, and staff in the sports departments are themselves sports fans in trainers. As Baker e*plains, "How can you sell jeans if you"re wearing a black suit? Smithson"s has a new identity, and this needs to be made clear to the customers." She"s also given every sales assistant responsibility for ensuring customer satisfaction, even if it means occasionally breaking company rules in the hope that this will help company profits.
Rowena Baker is proving successful, but the City"s big investors haven"t been persuaded. According to retail analyst, John Matthews, "Money had already been invested in refurbishment of the store and in fact that led to the boost in sales. She took the credit, but hadn"t done anything to achieve it. And in my view the company"s shareholders are not convinced. The fact is that unless she opens several more stores pretty soon, Smithson"s profits will start to fall because turnover at the e*isting store will inevitably start to decline."
13 According to the writer, in the mid-1990s Smithson"s department store
A was making a loss.
B had a problem keeping staff.
C was unhappy with its adverstly sold goods under the Smithson"s name.
14 According to the writer, Smithson"s profits started rising three years ago because of
A an improvement in the retailing sector.
B the previous work done on the store.
C Rowena Baker"s choice of designer.
D a change in the products on sale.
15 According to Rowena Baker, one problem which Smithson"s faced when she joined was that
A the number of people using the store was falling slowly.
B its competitors offered a more specialised range of products.
C the store"s prices were set at the wrong level.
D customers were unhappy with the service provided.
16 According to the writer, many staff opposed Baker"s plans because
A they were unwilling to change their way of working.
B they disagreed with her goals for the store.
C they felt they were not consulted enough about the changes.
D they were unhappy with her style of management.
17 Baker has changed staff policies because she believes that
A the corporate image can be improved through staff uniforms.
B the previous rules were not fair to cusustomers should be able to identify with the staff serving them.
D employees should share in company profits.
18 What problem does John Matthews think Smithson"s ire money needs to be invested in the present store.
B The company"s profits will only continue to rise if it e*pands.
C The refurbishment of the store is proving unpopular with customers.
D Smithson"s shareholders e*pect a quick return on their investments.
《Department store magic》，字面上是百货公司的魔力。讲的是英国的一个百货公司如何摆脱困境。第一段是点明公司所遭遇的困境，接着第二段讲一个女CEO 上台开始转变局面，第三段和第四段具体讲这位女 CEO 的应对措施，最后一段总结：革命尚未成功，同志仍需努力。
13 题，问在 90 年代中期这个百货公司的情况是什么样的。答案是第一段的最后一句：its customers were buying fewer and fewer of its own-brand products, the major part of its business, and showing a preference for more fashionable brands.这个题目的答案有相当的迷惑性。整个句子都是在讲客户购买的越来越少，偏好更多的时尚品牌。所以很容易误选 A，但实际上这里并没有说亏损。关键是这个地方：its own-brand products, the major part of its business。自由品牌仍然是公司业务的主要部分。所以应该选 D：主要销售 Smithson 名下的产品。Under the Smithson’s name 也就是 its own brand products。
14 题，问 Smithson 的利润从三年前开始增长，原因是什么。答案是第二段的这么一句：she took the bold decision to invite one of Europe"s most e*citing interior designers to develop the fashion area 她做出了一个大胆的决定，邀请了欧洲最刺激的室内设计师来开发时尚领域。后面紧接着就说 This very quickly led to rising sales，所以答案选 C：Rowena Baker 的设计师选择。
15 题，问当 Rowena Baker 加入时公司面临的一个问题是什么。这题的关键是要理解一个句子中一个词的含义：It provided a traditional service targeted at middle-aged, middle-income customers, who"d been shopping there for years, and the customer base ntracting.。它提供的传统服务目标人群是中年中等收入者，这些人已经在那购物多年。并且客户基数逐渐减少。Contracting:缩小，收缩的意思。所以答案选 A。
16 题，问很多员工反对 Baker 计划的原因是什么。答案是这么一句：many employees resisted her improvements because they just wouldn"t be persuaded that there was anything wrong with the way they"d always done things。不愿意被说服他们以前做事情的方式有什么问题。意思也就是不愿意改变他们工作的方式。选 A。
18 题，问 John 认为 Smithson 面临的问题是什么。答案是最后一段的最后一句：The fact is that unless she opens several more stores pretty soon, Smithson"s profits will start to fall because turnover at the e*isting store will inevitably start to decline.事实上除非她尽快的开更多的店，Smithson的利润将会减少因为现有商店的营业额将不可避免的开始下降。也就是 B 所说的除非扩张，公司的利润才会继续增长。